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The Liberation Trilogy Boxed Set
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message 1: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited Feb 19, 2015 09:07PM) (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod

This is the glossary (Part Two) for the SECOND WORLD WAR and The Liberation Trilogy as well as Eisenhower in War and Peace by Jean Edward Smith. This is not a non spoiler thread so any urls and/or expansive discussion can take place here regarding this book. Additionally, this is the spot to add that additional information that may contain spoilers or any helpful urls, links, etc.

This thread is not to be used for self promotion.

The Liberation Trilogy Boxed Set by Rick Atkinson by Rick AtkinsonRick Atkinson

An Army at Dawn The War in North Africa, 1942-1943 (World War II Liberation Trilogy, #1) by Rick Atkinson The Day of Battle The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944 (World War II Liberation Trilogy, #2) by Rick Atkinson The Guns at Last Light The War in Western Europe, 1944-1945 (World War II Liberation Trilogy, #3) by Rick Atkinson all by Rick AtkinsonRick Atkinson

Eisenhower in War and Peace by Jean Edward Smith by Jean Edward SmithJean Edward Smith

message 2: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3948 comments Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini was born in Forli, Italy, in 1883. After working briefly as a schoolteacher, Mussolini fled to Switzerland in 1902 in an effort to evade military service.

Mussolini returned to Italy in 1904 and over the next ten years worked as a journalist and eventually became editor of Avanti. Mussolini was active in the socialist movement but moved to right in 1914 when the Italian government failed to support the Triple Alliance. In 1915 Mussolini resigned from the Socialist Party when it advocated support for the Allies in the First World War.

When Italy entered the war Mussolini served in the Italian Army and eventually reached the rank of corporal. After being wounded he returned to Milan to edit the right-wing Il Popolo d'Italia. The journal demanded that the Allies fully supported Italy's demands at the Paris Peace Conference.

After the war Mussolini attacked Vittorio Orlando for failing to achieve Italy's objectives at the Versailles Peace Treaty and helped to organize the various right-wing groups in Italy into the Fascist Party. After a series of riots in 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III appointed Mussolini in an attempt to prevent a communist revolution in Italy.

Mussolini headed a coalition of fascists and nationalists and parliamentary government continued until the murder of the socialist leader, Giacomo Matteotti in 1924. Left-wing parties were suppressed and in 1929 Italy became a one-party state. Mussolini also carried out an extensive public-works programme and the fall in unemployment made him a popular figure in Italy.

Italy controlled Eritrea and Somalia in Africa but had failed several times to colonize neighbouring Ethiopia. When Mussolini came to power he was determined to show the strength of his regime by occupying the country. In October 1935 Mussolini sent in General Pietro Badoglio and the Italian Army into Ethiopia.

The League of Nations condemned Italy's aggression and in November imposed sanctions. This included an attempt to ban countries from selling arms, rubber and some metals to Italy. Some political leaders in France and Britain opposed sanctions arguing that it might persuade Mussolini to form an alliance with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany.

Over 400,000 Italian troops fought in Ethiopia. The poorly armed Ethiopians were no match for Italy's modern tanks and aeroplanes. The Italians even used mustard gas on the home forces and were able to capture Addis Ababa, the capital of the country, in May 1936, forcing Emperor Haile Selassie to flee to England.

Adolf Hitler had been inspired by Mussolini's achievements and once he gained power in Germany he sought a close relationship with Italy. In October 1936 the two men signed a non-military alliance.

In 1939 Italy invaded Albania and soon afterwards Mussolini signed a full defensive alliance with Nazi Germany (the Pact of Steel). However, Mussolini did not declare war on Britain and France until 10th June 1940.

Mussolini already had over a million men in the Italian Army based in Libya. In neighbouring Egypt the British Army had only 36,000 men guarding the Suez Canal and the Arabian oilfields. On 13th September, 1940, Marshall Rodolfo Graziani and five Italian divisions began a rapid advance into Egypt but halted in front of the main British defences at Mersa Matruh.

In October 1940, Mussolini declared war on Greece. Attempts by the Italian Army to invade Greece ended in failure. The war was also going badly in North Africa. Although outnumbered, General Archibald Wavell ordered a British counter-offensive on 9th December, 1940. The Italians suffered heavy casualties and were pushed back more than 800km (500 miles). British troops moved along the coast and on 22nd January, 1941, they captured the port of Tobruk in Libya from the Italians.

By the end of 1941 Italy was totally dependent on Nazi Germany. The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Galaezzo Ciano, became increasingly dissatisfied with the way Mussolini was running the country. After a series of heated arguments with Mussolini, Ciano resigned in February, 1943.

At the Casablanca Conference Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt discussed ways of taking Italy out of the war. It was eventually decided to launch an invasion of Sicily, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, south-west of Italy. It was hoped that if the island was taken Benito Mussolini would be ousted from power. It was also argued that a successful invasion would force Adolf Hitler to send troops from the Eastern Front and help to relieve pressure on the Red Army in the Soviet Union.

The operation was placed under the supreme command of General Dwight D. Eisenhower. General Harold Alexander was commander of ground operations and his 15th Army Group included General George Patton (US 7th Army) and General Bernard Montgomery (8th Army). Admiral Andrew Cunningham was in charge of naval operations and Air Marshal Arthur Tedder was air commander.

On 10th July 1943, the 8th Army landed at five points on the south-eastern tip of the island and the US 7th Army at three beaches to the west of the British forces. The Allied troops met little opposition and Patton and his troops quickly took Gela, Licata and Vittoria. The British landings were also unopposed and Syracuse was taken on the the same day. This was followed by Palazzolo (11th July), Augusta (13th July) and Vizzini (14th July), whereas the US troops took the Biscani airfield and Niscemi (14th July).

General George Patton now moved to the west of the island and General Omar Bradley headed north and the German Army was forced to retreat to behind the Simeto River. Patton took Palermo on 22nd July cutting off 50,000 Italian troops in the west of the island. Patton now turned east along the northern coast of the island towards the port of Messina.

Meanwhile General Bernard Montgomery and the 8th Army were being held up by German forces under Field Marshal Albrecht Kesselring. The Allies carried out several amphibious assaults attempted to cut off the Germans but they were unable to stop the evacuation across the Messina Straits to the Italian mainland. This included 40,000 German and 60,000 Italian troops, as well as 10,000 German vehicles and 47 tanks.

The loss of Sicily created serious problems for Mussolini. It was now clear that the Allies would use the island as a base for invading Italy. A meeting of the Fascist Grand Council is held on 24th July and Galaezzo Ciano gets support for his idea that Italy should sign a separate peace with the Allies. The following day Victor Emmanuel III told Mussolini he was dismissed from office. His successor, Pietro Badoglio, declared martial law and placed Mussolini under arrest.

On 29th July 1943, Adolf Hitler had a meeting with Otto Skorzeny about the possibility of rescuing Benito Mussolini, imprisoned high in the Abruzzi Apennines. Skorzeny agreed and on 13th September he led an airbourne force of commandos to the hotel where he was being held. Mussolini was soon freed and Skorzeny flew him to safety.

Mussolini now set up the Salo Republic, a fascist regime in German-occupied northern Italy. His first was the arrest and execution of five of those who had voted against him on the Fascist Grand Council, including his son-in-law, Galaezzo Ciano.

On 18th May, 1944, Allied troops led by General Wladyslaw Anders (Polish Corps) and General Alphonse Juin (French Corps) captured Monte Cassino. This opened a corridor for Allied troops and they reached Anzio on 24th May. The German defence now began to disintegrate and General Harold Alexander ordered General Mark Clarkto trap and destroy the retreating 10th Army. Clark ignored this order and instead headed for Rome and liberated the city on the 4th June.

After the capture of Rome Pietro Badoglio resigned and Invanoe Bonomi formed a new government. In an attempt to bring the country together Bonomi's government included left-wing figures such as Benedetto Croce and Palmiro Togliatti.

The Allied armies now pursued the German 10th Army and took Grosseto (16th June), Assisi (18th June), Perugia (20th June), Florence (12th August), Rimini (21st September), Lorenzo (11th October) until being held on the Gothic Line in the northern Apennines. The arrival of winter weather meant that a renewed offensive did not begin until 9th April, 1945.

On 23rd April the 8th Army began to cross the River Po at Mantua. German resistance now began to collapse and Parma and Verona were taken and partisan uprisings began in Milan and Genoa.

With Allied troops approaching, Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, attempted to escape to Switzerland. They were captured at Lake Como by Italian partisans on 27th April, 1945. The following day they were shot and their bodies displayed in public in Milan.
Source (

Mussolini by R.J.B. Bosworth by R.J.B. Bosworth (no photo)
Mussolini The Rise and Fall of Il Duce by Christopher Hibbert by Christopher HibbertChristopher Hibbert
Mussolini's Italy Life Under the Fascist Dictatorship, 1915-1945 by R.J.B. Bosworth by R.J.B. Bosworth (no photo)
Mussolini Warlord Failed Dreams of Empire, 1940-1943 by H. James Burgwyn by H. James Burgwyn (no photo)
Mussolini and His Generals The Armed Forces and Fascist Foreign Policy, 1922-1940 by John Gooch by John Gooch (no photo)
Mussolini and Italian Fascism by Giuseppe Finaldi by Giuseppe Finaldi (no photo)
The Brutal Friendship Mussolini, Hitler and the Fall of Italian Fascism by Frederick William Dampier Deakin by Frederick William Dampier Deakin (no photo)
Mussolini A Biography by Jasper Ridley by Jasper Ridley (no photo)
The Fall of Mussolini Italy, the Italians, and the Second World War by Philip Morgan by Philip Morgan (no photo)

message 3: by Peter (new)

Peter Flom Hmmm. He and Hitler both became Corporals. During wartime. The earlier armies sometimes got things right.

message 4: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod
Not sure what you mean Peter?

message 5: by Peter (new)

Peter Flom Sorry for being unclear. Getting advancement in an army is usually pretty easy during wartime. Yet these two only made it to corporal, implying a notable lack of fitness for advancement.

message 6: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod
Don't we all wish that others sorted things out as well. Understood now.

message 7: by Christopher (new)

Christopher Secretary of War George Dern

George Henry Dern (September 8, 1872 – August 27, 1936) was an American politician, mining man, and businessman. He is probably best remembered for co-inventing the Holt–Dern ore roasting process, as well as for his tenure as United States Secretary of War from 1933 to his death in 1936. He also served as the sixth Governor of Utah for eight years, from 1925 to 1933.

Early Life
Born in Dodge County, Nebraska, on September 8, 1872, Dern was the son of John Dern, a pioneering Nebraska farmer, mine operator, and industrialist, and Elizabeth, whose maiden name was the same as her married name, Dern. John was president of the Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company and no doubt had a profound influence on George, who would follow in his father’s footsteps when he entered the mining business. Dern graduated from Nebraska's Fremont Normal College in 1888 and from 1893 to 1894 attended the University of Nebraska. Dern was also a talented athlete, serving as the University’s football captain during that time. In 1894 he accompanied his family to Salt Lake City, joining the Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company, which his father served as president. Rising rapidly from bookkeeper to company treasurer, he was promoted in 1901 to general manager of the company, which had been reorganized as the Consolidated Mercur Gold Mines Company. Dern was co-inventor of the Holt-Dern roaster, a furnace for carrying out the Holt-Christenson roasting process, a technique for recovering silver from low-grade ores. Mercur Gold Mining and Milling shut down in 1913, however Dern’s experience and passion for mining would be reflected later on in his political career. On June 7,1899, in Fremont, Dodge County, Nebraska, he married Charlotte "Lottie" Brown and had six living children together (Mary J. (1902), John H.(1904), William B. (1907), Margaret (1909), Elizabeth (1915), and James G.(1916)) and were married up until the time of his death in 1936. Lottie died on September 5, 1952 in Chicago, and is buried in Mt. Olivet Cemetery, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Dern entered politics in 1914, running on a Democratic and Progressive fusion ticket in a Utah state senate district encompassing Salt Lake County. He was elected in 1914, serving until 1923 in the state senate, where he was twice selected as Democratic floor leader. His tenure there was marked by his strong advocacy of progressive legislation, including a landmark mineral leasing act that leased, rather than sold, Utah's mineral rights to private concerns. Dern, owned the Landmark trademark,Dern gained the Democratic nomination for governor in 1924, and during the campaign he received backing from the Utah Progressive party and an endorsement from Progressive presidential candidate Robert La Follette. Challenging incumbent Republican governor Charles R. Mabey, Dern ran on the catchy slogan "We want a Dern good governor, and we don't mean Mabey." At the time, Utah was extremely Republican oriented. This was largely due to the high concentration of Mormons, typically having conservative republican viewpoints, living in the area. Although George Dern was neither a Republican nor a Mormon, he won by a plurality of 10,000 votes, 81,308 to 72,127, while the Republicans carried all the other statewide offices by a margin of 30,000 votes. Dern obviously had an incredible knack for reaching across party lines, a skill that is highly desirable when running in a minority party. Dern’s ability in this area can be attributed to his outgoing, open-minded and empathetic personality.

As governor, Dern focused on using Utah's rich natural resources to develop the state economy and devoted himself to education, social welfare, and tax reform, thus further embroidering his reputation as a progressive. Arguing that the general property tax was unfair as the sole source of state revenue, Dern secured the adoption of a state income tax and a corporate franchise tax against strong opposition. He also took a leading role in resolving important interstate problems related to the building of the Boulder Dam on the Colorado River. Dern, whose state had the disadvantage of being upstream from the dam, staunchly defended the theory that, with the exception of navigation, the waters of western streams were state rather than federal resources. This controversy brought Dern into direct conflict with U.S. secretary of commerce Herbert Hoover, who was attempting to mediate the dispute for the Calvin Coolidge administration.

In yet another demonstration of Dern’s appeal to Republican voters, Dern was reelected governor in 1928 by a landslide 31,000 votes despite the fact that Utah voted for the Republican National ticket by a margin of 14,000 votes. He subsequently served from 1929 to 1930 as chair of the National Governors' Conference, where he worked with New York governor Franklin D. Roosevelt. Dern's record as a progressive western governor also commended him to Roosevelt, who after his November 1932 election to the presidency considered Dern for a cabinet position during his second term. He subsequently appointed Dern as his Secretary of War.

Secretary of War
Roosevelt initially wanted Dern for the post of Secretary of the Interior but settled on appointing him to the War Department. Although he had no military experience and was reputed to have pacifist leanings, Dern won the support of military circles by promoting greater efficiency and readiness, calling for a military structure that could be expanded quickly and easily in a crisis. He also initiated a five-year plan to equip the army with newer airplanes, more tanks, semiautomatic rifles, and modernized artillery. He advocated increased strength for the army Air Corps and investigated charges of lobbying in the War Department, resulting in the court-martial and dismissal of two high-ranking army officers who were found guilty of lobbying. These reforms won him the support and admiration of most military leaders.

During Dern's tenure the War Department oversaw the administration of the Civilian Conservation Corps. Dern's department provided the CCC with food, clothing, transportation, and medical care for the 300,000 unemployed who joined its ranks for work in the preservation and conservation of America's public lands. The army's Corps of Engineers also began several important public works projects during Dern's tenure, including the dredging of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the construction of the Florida ship canal. Under the ageis of the PWA, the Corps also built such projects as the Bonneville and Fort Peck dams; and began the aborted "Quoddy" Dam project. Dern worked closely with army chief of staff Douglas MacArthur on such projects. Dern was often at odds with President Roosevelt over plans to coordinate water resource development, and in 1935 and 1936 he opposed legislation to establish a permanent National Resources Board, even though it was strongly supported by Roosevelt. While still serving as Secretary of War, Dern died in Washington, D.C., from heart and kidney complications following a bout with influenza.

Dern was fond of outdoor sports such as fishing and hiking and is remembered as a hard-working member of the Roosevelt cabinet, one who could also be an entertaining public speaker. Ultimately, George Dern served as Secretary of War during a rather inconsequential time period for that position. The country was in the midst of the Great Depression, and due to the financial crisis, had adopted an isolationist approach toward foreign policy. After years of tight military budgets and an isolationist foreign policy, the War Department was a relatively inconsequential post during Dern's tenure. While he was generally well liked by other members of the cabinet, he never played a decisive role in the determination of administration policies. This is why Dern’s political career is less documented than someone who served in his same position during a time of war.
His wife was Charlotte "Lottie" Brown (the daughter of William Steele Brown and Ida Belle Martin); the couple had seven children. He is the grandfather of Academy Award-nominated actor Bruce Dern, and the great-grandfather of Academy Award-nominated actress Laura Dern.

General of the Army George C. Marshall, Soldier and Statesman by Ed Cray by Ed Cray (no photo)
Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978 by Robert Sobel by Robert Sobel (no photo)
Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army Portraits & Biographical Sketches by William G. Bell by William G. Bell (no photo)
Utah History Encyclopedia by Allan Kent Powell by Allan Kent Powell (no photo)
(no image) American National Biography, Volume 6: Dafora - Dubuclet by John A. Garraty (no photo)

message 8: by Christopher (new)

Christopher General John R. Deane

General John Russell Deane (March 18, 1896-July 14, 1982) was a career Army officer. He attended the University of California-Berkeley before joining the Army as an enlisted man when the United States entered World War I. Becoming an officer as a “90-day wonder” in an officer’s training program (where one of his tent-mates was F. Scott Fitzgerald), he remained in the Army at war’s end.

A graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff School and the U.S. Army War College, a diploma from both being a key to success, Deane followed the normal career of an infantry officer until World War II broke out, when he became the Assistant Secretary, and later the Secretary, of the Army General Staff, the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the U.S./U.K. Combined Chiefs of Staff. He served in these capacities until the fall of 1943, when he was sent to the Soviet Union at the request of Averill Harriman, the newly appointed U.S. Ambassador to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

In his role as chief of the Military Liaison Mission, he coordinated military policies between Washington and Moscow, a task which included organizing the receiving end of Lend-Lease shipments, sharing and developing joint strategies and, as the war neared an end, smoothing the friction which developed, particularly in the Balkans, as Western forces increasingly met Soviet troops on the battlefield. Deane was in daily contact with Soviet officials, making him, by war’s end, probably the West’s most experienced individual in negotiating with Soviet leaders.

Soon after the end of the war, Deane left Moscow and was reassigned as the military liaison to the United Nations (UN), retiring in March 1946. He then began writing Strange Alliance, completing it in September, 1946. The book was widely read at the time and an excerpt was published in Life Magazine.
(Source: http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute....)

Partners at the Creation The Men Behind Postwar Germany's Defense and Intelligence Establishments by James H. Critchfield by James H. Critchfield (no photo)
A Democracy at War America's Fight at Home and Abroad in World War II by William L. O'Neill by William L. O'Neill (no photo)
Operation Rollback America's Secret War Behind the Iron Curtain by Peter Grose by Peter Grose (no photo)
The Wars of Myron King A B-17 Pilot Faces WW II and U. S.-Soviet Intrigue by James Lee Mcdonough by James Lee Mcdonough (no photo)
(no image) The Strange Alliance; The Story Of Our Efforts At Wartime Co Operation With Russia by John R Deane (no photo)

message 9: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Pacific Fleet

The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a Pacific Ocean theater-level component command of the United States Navy that provides naval forces to the United States Pacific Command. Fleet headquarters is at Pearl Harbor Naval Base, Hawaii, with large secondary facilities at North Island, San Diego Bay on the Mainland.

A Pacific Fleet was created in 1907 when the Asiatic Squadron and the Pacific Squadron were combined. In 1910, the ships of the First Squadron were organized back into a separate Asiatic Fleet. The General Order of 6 December 1922 organized the United States Fleet, with the Battle Fleet as the Pacific presence. Until May 1940, the Battle Fleet was stationed on the west coast of the United States (primarily at San Diego). During the summer of that year, as part of the U.S. response to Japanese expansionism, it was instructed to take an "advanced" position at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. Long term basing at Pearl Harbor was so strongly opposed by the commander, Admiral James O. Richardson, that he personally protested in Washington. Political considerations were thought sufficiently important that he was relieved by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, who was in command at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor.

The Pacific Fleet was formally recreated on 1 February 1941. On that day General Order 143 split the United States Fleet into separate Atlantic, Pacific, and Asiatic Fleets.

Power at Sea, Volume 1 The Age of Navalism, 1890-1918 by Lisle A. Rose by Lisle A. Rose (no photo)
American Naval History An Illustrated Chronology of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps, 1775-Present by Jack Sweetman by Jack Sweetman (no photo)
One Hundred Years of Sea Power The U. S. Navy, 1890-1990 by George W. Baer by George W. Baer (no photo)
The Pacific War 1941-1945 by John Costello by John Costello (no photo)
To Shining Sea A History of the United States Navy, 1775-1998 by Stephen Howarth by Stephen Howarth (no photo)
History of the U.S. Navy Vol.1 by Robert W. Love, Jr. by Robert W. Love, Jr. (no photo)
History of the U.S. Navy Vol.2 by Robert W. Love, Jr. by Robert W. Love, Jr. (no photo) Six Frigates The Epic History of the Founding of the U.S. Navy by Ian W. Toll by Ian W. TollIan W. Toll
Victory at Sea World War Ii in the Pacific by James F. Dunnigan by James F. Dunnigan (no photo)
World War II in the Pacific An Encyclopedia by Stanley Sandler by Stanley Sandler (no photo)
An Illustrated Data Guide to Battleships of World War II (Illustrated Data Guides) by Christopher Chant by Christopher Chant (no photo)
The Second World War by John Keegan by John KeeganJohn Keegan
The Pacific War Encyclopedia by James F. Dunnigan by James F. Dunnigan (no photo)
(no image) The War in the Pacific Encyclopedia, Vol. 2 by James F. Dunnigan (no photo)
(no image) Beans Bullets and Black Oil by Worrall Reed Carter (no photo)

message 10: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod

message 11: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) Bernard Baruch

Bernard Baruch, in full Bernard Mannes Baruch (born Aug. 19, 1870, Camden, S.C., U.S.—died June 20, 1965, New York, N.Y.), American financier who was an adviser to U.S. presidents.

After graduating from the College of the City of New York in 1889, Baruch worked as an office boy in a linen business and later in Wall Street brokerage houses. Over the years he amassed a fortune as a stock market speculator.

In 1916 he was appointed by Pres. Woodrow Wilson to the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense, and during World War I he became chairman of the War Industries Board. In 1919 he was a member of the Supreme Economic Council at the Versailles Peace Conference and was also a personal adviser to President Wilson on the terms of peace.

As an expert in wartime economic mobilization, Baruch was employed as an adviser by Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, although he did not hold an administrative position.

After the war Baruch played an instrumental role in formulating policy at the United Nations regarding the international control of atomic energy. The designation of “elder statesman” was applied to him perhaps more often than to any other American of his time.

Bernard M. Baruch The Adventures of a Wall Street Legend by James Grant by Bernard M. BaruchBernard M. Baruch
Peace Through Strength Bernard Baruch and a Blueprint for Security by Morris V. Rosenbloom by Morris V. Rosenbloom (no photo)
The Speculator, Bernard M. Baruch in Washington, 1917-1965 by Jordan A. Schwarz by Jordan A. Schwarz (no photo)
Bernard Baruch Lone Wolf of Wall Street by Daniel Alef by Daniel Alef (no photo)
United States Presidential Advisors Bernard Baruch, Alexander Haig, John Hay, Vince Foster, Edwin Meese, Roger Ailes, Dick Cheney by Source Wikipedia by Source Wikipedia (no photo)
Baruch My Own Story by Bernard M. Baruch by Bernard M. BaruchBernard M. Baruch
(no image)Bernard Baruch, Portrait of a Citizen by William Lindsay White (no photo)

message 12: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Dewey Short

Dewey Jackson Short, a Representative from Missouri; born in Galena, Stone County, Mo., April 7, 1898; attended the public school, Galena High School, and Marionville (Mo.) College; during the First World War served in the Infantry; was graduated from Baker University, Baldwin City, Kans., in 1919 and from Boston (Mass.) University in 1922; attended Harvard University, Heidelberg University, the University of Berlin, Germany, and Oxford University, Oxford, England; professor of ethics, psychology, and political philosophy at Southwestern College, Winfield, Kans., in 1923, 1924, and 1926-1928; pastor of the Grace Methodist Episcopal Church, Springfield, Mo., in 1927; elected as a Republican to the Seventy-first Congress (March 4, 1929-March 3, 1931); unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1930 to the Seventy-second Congress; resumed his former professional pursuits; delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1932; unsuccessful candidate in 1932 for nomination to the United States Senate; elected to the Seventy-fourth and to the ten succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1935-January 3, 1957); chairman, Committee on Armed Services (Eighty-third Congress); unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1956 to the Eighty-fifth Congress; congressional delegate to inspect concentration camps in Germany in 1945; Assistant Secretary of the Army from March 15, 1957, to January 20, 1961; was president emeritus, National Rivers and Harbors Congress, and a lecturer; resided in Washington, D.C., where he died November 19, 1979; interment in Galena Cemetery, Galena, Mo.

Truman by David McCullough by David McCulloughDavid McCullough

message 13: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Hank Greenberg

Hank Greenberg was one of the great sluggers of the 1930s and 1940s. A fearsome batsman who hit 40 or more homers four times during his 13-year major league career, he retired with a .313 BA and a 41 percent OBP. He easily rates as one of the Tigers' greatest players of all-time, and has his life-size sculpture featured at Comerica Park.

Greenberg lost more prime years than most to service for his country, as he originally went in during May 1941 and stayed in after Pearl Harbor through part of the 1945 season. He was still quite good when he returned in 1945, so it is clear that he could have hit at least 100+ more home runs if he had not missed the time. He was married to Carol Gimbel, whose family owned a chain of department stores. Hank and Carol's son Steve worked for Major League Baseball in the Office of the Commissioner for many years.

He was the first player to hit 25 home runs in a season in both major leagues (Johnny Mize joined him 3 years later). He was also the first player to win the Most Valuable Player Award at 2 different positions,a s a first baseman and as an outfielder.

He was drafted on May 7, 1941, at age 30, and reported to Fort Custer, Michigan, but was discharged on December 5, 1941 under the law releasing men over 28 years of age. He re-enlisted on January 30, 1942 and was discharged on June 15, 1945, as a captain with the 20th Bomber Command. He was awarded a Presidential Unit Citation and 4 battle stars. In 1947, Greenberg became the first major league player to earn more than $80,000 in pure salary.

He reached base in 18 straight playoff games, a Tigers record until Miguel Cabrera broke it in 2012.

After his playing career, he became General Manager of the Cleveland Indians from 1950 to 1957 and the Chicago White Sox from 1959 to 1961.

Notable Achievements
5-time AL All-Star (1937-1940 & 1945)
2-time AL MVP (1935 & 1940)
AL Slugging Percentage Leader (1940)
AL OPS Leader (1940)
AL Runs Scored Leader (1938)
2-time AL Total Bases Leader (1935 & 1940)
2-time AL Doubles Leader (1934 & 1940)
4-time AL Home Runs Leader (1935, 1938, 1940 & 1946)
4-time AL RBI Leader (1935, 1937, 1940 & 1946)
2-time League Bases on Balls Leader (1938/AL & 1947/NL)
20-Home Run Seasons: 8 (1934, 1935, 1937-1940, 1946-1947)
30-Home Run Seasons: 6 (1935, 1937-1940 & 1946)
40-Home Run Seasons: 4 (1937, 1938, 1940 & 1946)
50-Home Run Seasons: 1 (1938)
100 RBI Seasons: 7 (1934, 1935, 1937-1940 & 1946)
100 Runs Scored Seasons: 6 (1934, 1935 & 1937-1940)
200 Hits Seasons: 3 (1934, 1935 & 1937)
Won two World Series with the Detroit Tigers (1935 & 1945)
Baseball Hall of Fame: Class of 1956

Hank Greenberg The Story of My Life by Hank Greenberg by Hank Greenberg (no photo)
Fallen Giant The Amazing Story of Hank Greenberg and the History of AIG by Ron Shelp by Ron Shelp (no photo)
Hammerin' Hank, George Almighty and the Say Hey Kid by John Rosengren by John Rosengren (no photo)
Hank Greenberg The Hero of Heroes by John Rosengren by John Rosengren (no photo)
Hank Greenberg The Hero Who Didn't Want to Be One by Mark Kurlansky by Mark KurlanskyMark Kurlansky
Hank Greenberg Hall-of-Fame Slugger by Ira Berkow by Ira Berkow (no photo)
Hammerin' Hank Greenberg Baseball Pioneer by Shelley Sommer by Shelley Sommer (no photo)
High and Tight Hank Greenberg Confronts Anti-Semitism in Baseball  by Ray Robinson by Ray Robinson (no photo)

message 14: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) General Henri Giraud: Army of France

Henri Giraud was born in Paris, France, on 18th January, 1879. After graduating from St Cyr in 1900, he joined the French Army. He served in the 4th Zouave Regiment in North Africa until 1914 when he returned to fight on the Western Front. Giraud was captured in the battle of Guise in August 1914, but escaped two months later.

After the war Giraud remained in the army and joined the staff of General Francet d'Esperey in Constantinople. He went to Morocco in 1922 and was promoted to colonel three years later. He won the Legion d'Honneur for his role in the capture of Abd-el-Krim and later succeeded Hubert Lyautey in Morocco before becoming military governor of Metz.

On the outbreak of the Second World War Giraud, a member of the Superior War Council, was given command of the 7th Army. Although an early advocate of motorization, he was fairly ignorant of modern warfare and soon clashed with General Charles De Gaulle over tank tactics.

Giraud and the 7th Army were sent into Holland on 10th May 1940 and was able to briefly halt the advance of the German Army at Breda on 13th May. He was then sent to try and block the German attack through the Ardennes. Giraud was captured at Wassigny on 19th May and imprisoned in Koenigstein Castle near Dresden.

With the help of the Allied secret services, Giraud escaped from prison on 17th April 1942. Pierre Laval tried to persuade him to return to Germany, fearing he could become one of the leaders of the French Resistance. Giraud refused and instead went to live in Algeria.

On 7th November, Giraud had a secret meeting with General Dwight D. Eisenhower in Gibraltar. Eisenhower told Giraud about Operation Torch and persuaded him to become commander of French forces in Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia after the invasion of North Africa. The following day Allied forces landed in Casablanca, Oran and Algiers.

Most French officers in North Africa refused to accept the authority of Giraud. The French troops fought back at Oran and General Mark Clark immediately began negotiations with Admiral Jean-Francois Darlan, overall C-in-C of Vichy forces, in an attempt to negotiate a ceasefire.

When Darlan was assassinated on 24th December 1942, Giraud became his successor as the civil and military chief of French North Africa. He quickly upset the Allies by ordering the arrest of several Frenchmen who had aided General Dwight D. Eisenhower during Operation Torch.

Giraud met Franklin D. Roosevelt, Winston Churchill and Charles De Gaulle at Casablanca in January 1943. After much discussion it was agreed that Giraud and De Gaulle would become co-presidents of the French Committee of National Liberation (NCNL). De Gaulle reached Algeria on 30th May and soon used his superior political skills to become leader of the organization.

Giraud retained control of the French armed forces and on 13th September led the invasion of Corsica. During the operation he was criticized by De Gaulle and other Allied leaders for arming Corsica's Front National, the communist dominated resistance group.

In April 1944 Giraud lost his post as commander in chief and was put on the retired list. On 28th August 1944 he survived an assassination attempt in Algeria.

On 2nd June 1946 Giraud was elected to the Constituent Assembly as a member of the Republican Party of Liberty. Henri Giraud, who published Mes Evasions (1946) and Algeria 1942-1944 (1949), died in Dijon on 13th March 1949.

Henri Giraud by Jesse Russell by Jesse Russell (no photo)
Person (Special Operations Executive) Christopher Lee, Josef Hans Grafl, Albrecht Gaiswinkler, Kim Philby, Henri Giraud, Gunnar S Nsteby by Source Wikipedia by Source Wikipedia (no photo)
(no image) Great Escapes of World War II by George Sullivan (no photo)
Tricolor Over the Sahara The Desert Battles of the Free French, 1940-1942 by Edward L. Bimberg by Edward L. Bimberg (no photo)
DeGaulle A Political Biography by Alexander Werth by Alexander Werth (no photo)
The Vichy Syndrome History and Memory in France Since 1944 by Henry Russo by Henry Russo (no photo)
Operation Torch Anglo-American Invasion of North Africa (Campaign Book, #22) by Vincent Jones by Vincent Jones (no photo)
Ghost Front The Ardennes Before The Battle Of The Bulge by Charles Whiting by Charles WhitingCharles Whiting

message 15: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Goodbye Dear I'll Be Back In a Year

(Mack Kay)

Horace Heidt & His Musical Knights (vocals: Ronnie Kemper & Donna Wood) - 1941
Dick Robertson & His Orch. - 1941
Bob Crosby & His Orch. - 1941
Frank Luther - 1941

Goodbye Dear, I'll be back in a year
'Cause I'm in the army now
They took my number right out of the hat
And there's nothing a guy can do about that

But when you get back you'll be all tanned and brown
Say, couldn't we buy that cottage right outside of town
Goodbye Dear, I'll be back in a year
Don't forget that I love you

Don't fear, Dear, I'll be here in a year
'Cause I'm true to the Army now
Ah, what a soldier, you wait and see
Why, I'll be a big gun in the artillery

Now honey, be sure and keep cozy and warm
Gee, you look cute in that new uniform
Oh, goodbye Dear, I'll be back in a year
Don't forget that I love you

(Orchestral Interlude)

Goodbye Dear, well I'm here for a year
I'm in the Army now
But don't you worry, the General and I
Are the greatest of pals
Now, Ronnie, don't you lie
Well, he fixed it up so I could have breakfast in bed
Well, why are you peeling potatoes instead?
Oh, he's just kidding me
Good bye dear, I'll be back in a year
Don't forget that I
Don't forget that I
BOTH: Don't forget that I love you

Goodbye Dear, I'll Be Back in a Year by Patricia Abbott by Patricia Abbott (no photo)
Music of the World War II Era by William H. Young by William H. Young (no photo)
American History in Song Lyrics from 1900 to 1945 by Diane Holloway by Diane Holloway (no photo)
(no image) The War Comes to Me: An Autobiographic History of World War II by John Burgess (no photo)

message 16: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Harry Grabiner

Harry Mitchell Grabiner (December 26, 1890 – October 24, 1948) was an American professional baseball executive. A 40-year employee of the Chicago White Sox, he served the team's owners — founding president Charles Comiskey, son and successor J. Louis Comiskey, and Lou’s widow, Grace — in a number of capacities, rising from peanut vendor to club secretary, business manager and vice president. He is often listed as the White Sox' first general manager, with a term lasting from as early as 1915 through 1945. After leaving Chicago that season, he joined Bill Veeck’s ownership syndicate and became a vice president and minority stockholder with the Cleveland Indians from 1946 until his death in 1948.

As team secretary and top aide to Charles Comiskey, Grabiner was a management eyewitness to the 1919 Black Sox Scandal, in which eight White Sox players conspired with gamblers to lose the 1919 World Series. In 1966, eighteen years after Grabiner’s death, Veeck wrote in his book The Hustler’s Handbook that he had discovered a diary Grabiner wrote of the 1919 season. In the chapter “Harry’s Diary,” Veeck quotes from Grabiner’s document and writes, “Beyond any doubt, the White Sox front office had more than some inkling what was going on from the very first game of the 1919 World Series.”[1] Some accounts state that Grabiner warned Comiskey, American League president Ban Johnson and National League president John Heydler of a possible scandal after Game 2 of the Series, but he was ignored. Ironically, after the scandal, Grabiner, who was Jewish, was attacked by the Dearborn Independent, owned by industrialist Henry Ford, in anti-Semitic articles that blamed the Jews for both the scandal and the cover-up.

A native of Chicago, Grabiner began his career with the White Sox at age 14; some accounts list his first job as a peanut vendor at South Side Park, others as a ticket seller and usher. He became a protégé of club secretary Charles Fredericks and was promoted to his mentor's position on Fredericks’ death in 1915. As such, Grabiner also witnessed the White Sox’ triumphs in the 1906 and 1917 World Series, and the building of Comiskey Park in 1910, as well as the 1919 debacle.

Although the eight players accused of the conspiracy were acquitted in a 1920 trial, all were banned from baseball for life. The scandal destroyed the White Sox for a generation; during Grabiner’s final quarter century with the team, Chicago finished in the American League’s first division only five times. They did not win another pennant until 1959, or another World Series until 2005. After Charles Comiskey’s death in 1931, Grabiner assumed greater responsibility for the team’s on-field operations during the J. Lou and Grace Comiskey regimes, and became a target for fan frustration.

“Grabiner was blasphemed by the fans and players, criticized by the press, and generally blamed for inefficacies which were not of his own doing. Yet he struggled doggedly against the great odds until he fled the scene,” wrote Baseball Digest in October 1950, two years after Grabiner’s death.

Grabiner’s last two years in baseball were successful ones, however, as he worked with Veeck to purchase the Cleveland Indians in 1946 and served as Veeck’s vice president and top assistant, as well as holding a small stake in the team. But in the closing weeks of Cleveland’s 1948 world championship season, Grabiner collapsed in Veeck’s office during a meeting. Suffering from a malady that has been variously described as a stroke, cerebral hemorrhage or brain tumor, he lapsed into a coma and never witnessed the Tribe’s AL playoff win over the Boston Red Sox or its six-game victory in the 1948 World Series. He died in Chicago, age 57, thirteen days after the final Series game. Survivors included his daughter, June Travis, a motion picture actress.

Biographical Dictionary of American Sports Baseball, Revised and Expanded Edition Degreesl G-P by David Porter by David L. Porter (no photo)
The Hustler's Handbook by Bill Veeck by Bill Veeck (no photo)
Eight Men Out by Eliot Asinof by Eliot Asinof (no photo)
Saying It's So A Cultural History of the Black Sox Scandal by Daniel A. Nathan by Daniel A. Nathan (no photo)
Ellis Island to Ebbets Field Sport and the American Jewish Experience by Peter Levine by Peter Levine (no photo)

message 17: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Senate Armed Services Committee

The Senate Committees on Military Affairs; on the Militia; and Naval Affairs were established on December 10, 1816. The Committee on the Militia was merged with the Committee on Military Affairs in 1858 to form the Military Affairs and Militia Committee. However, in 1872 the Committee dropped "Militia" from its name. The Military Affairs and Naval Affairs Committees existed until 1947 when they were combined by the Legislative Reorganization Act of 1946 into a new standing committee, the current Committee on Armed Services.

Committee Jurisdiction
As specified in Rule XXV, 1(c)(1) of the Standing Rules of the Senate, the Committee on Armed Services' has the following jurisdiction:
1. Aeronautical and space activities peculiar to or primarily associated with the development of weapons systems or military operations.
2. Common defense.
3. Department of Defense, the Department of the Army, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force, generally.
4. Maintenance and operation of the Panama Canal, including administration, sanitation, and government of the Canal Zone.
5. Military research and development.
6. National security aspects of nuclear energy.
7. Naval petroleum reserves, except those in Alaska.
8. Pay, promotion, retirement, and other benefits and privileges of members of the Armed Forces, including overseas education of civilian and military dependents.
9. Selective service system.
10. Strategic and critical materials necessary for the common defense.
The Senate has also given the committee the authority to study and review, on a comprehensive basis, matters relating to the common defense policy of the United States, and report thereon from time to time.

Mobilizing U.S. Industry in World War II Myth and Reality by Alan L. Gropman by Alan L. Gropman (no photo)
(no image) Army reorganization: hearings before the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, Sixth-sixth Congress, first and second session s , on H.R. 8287 ... H.R. 8068 ... H.R. 7925 ... H.R. 8870 by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs (no photo)
(no image) Department Of The Army, Ad Hoc Committee Report On The Army Need For The Study Of Military History by Military Affairs (no photo)
(no image) Hearing on artillery bill by United States. Congress. House. Committee on Military Affairs (no photo)

message 18: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Robert E. Thomason

Ewing Thomason (1879-1973), state legislator, United States congressman, and federal judge, was born in Rover, Bedford County, Tennessee, on May 30, 1879, the son of Benjamin Richard and Susan Olivia (Hoover) Thomason. His father was a Confederate veteran who later graduated from the College of Medicine and Surgery at Cincinnati, Ohio. The family moved to Era, Texas, when Thomason was one. Thomason's mother died when he was six; his father subsequently married Mary Maupin, and they had four children. Thomason entered Southwestern University at Georgetown in 1896 and graduated in 1898. One of his classmates was Rentfro B. Creager, with whom Thomason enrolled at the University of Texas law school; the two roomed together. At UT Thomason joined the Athenaeum Literary Society and the Kappa Sigma social fraternity. He also became a debater, and, teamed with Charles S. Potts, defeated the Baylor University team in the first intercollegiate debate the University of Texas ever won. One of their opponents was J. Frank Norris. Thomason graduated from law school in 1900 and set up practice in Gainesville. He was elected district attorney and Cooke county attorney in 1902 and was reelected in 1904. On February 14, 1905, he married Belle Davis. He subsequently became the law partner of W. O. Davis, his father-in-law. In 1911 malaria forced Thomason to seek a higher and drier climate, and he and Belle moved to El Paso in 1912; their two children were born there.

In El Paso he formed a highly successful law firm with Thomas C. Lea, Jr., J. G. McGrady, and Eugene T. Edwards. Thomason was elected to the state legislature in 1916 and reelected to a second term in 1918, during which he became speaker of the house. He was a Democrat and an advocate of prohibition, and he served on the committee that investigated alleged misconduct by Governor James E. Ferguson. The results of this investigation led to Ferguson's impeachment. Thomason ran for governor in 1920 but came in third behind Joseph W. Bailey and Pat M. Neff, and Neff won the run-off. Thomason returned to his El Paso law practice and was busy with it for some years. His wife died in 1921. He was elected mayor of El Paso in 1927, and in that year he married Abbie Mann Long. As mayor he built the first El Paso airport, served as president of the Texas League of Municipalities, and appointed the Southside Welfare Committee, a forerunner of slum-clearance projects. He was reelected mayor, but his real political ambition was realized in 1930 when he was elected to the United States Congress to fill a seat opened by Claude B. Hudspeth's retirement. His district, the largest in the country at the time, extended from San Angelo and Del Rio to El Paso.

In Congress, Thomason succeeded the late San Antonio Republican Harry M. Wurzbach on the Military Affairs Committee, and Fort Bliss flowered in his congressional years. Thomason was reelected thirteen times, usually with negligible opposition. In Congress he obtained bills to establish Red Bluff Dam and Big Bend National Park. He served as ranking member on the House Armed Services Committee, advocated universal military training, led the fight for the selective service, and had a hand in most war legislation. The Thomason Act passed about 1939 provided a year's army training for special students. He supported establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission and the Tennessee Valley Authority, but voted against the anti-lynching bill and the Fair Employment Practice Committee bill. He was on the bandwagon of the New Deal throughout his congressional career and remained active in national politics through the Roosevelt presidency and World War II. President Harry S. Truman appointed Thomason a federal district judge; he was sworn in on August 1, 1947, and left the court on June 1, 1963, soon after his eighty-fourth birthday. Thomason General Hospital in El Paso was named for him. He died on November 5, 1973.

The House Will Come to Order How the Texas Speaker Became a Power in State and National Politics by Patrick L. Cox by Patrick L. Cox (no photo)
(no image) Thomason: The Autobiography of a Federal Judge by Robert Ewing Thomason (no photo)
Texas Aggies Go to War In Service of Their Country, Expanded Edition by Henry C. Dethloff by Henry C. Dethloff (no photo)
Practicing Texas Politics by Lyle Brown by Lyle C. Brown (no photo)
American Legislative Leaders in the South, 1911-1994 by James Roger Sharp by James Roger Sharp (no photo)

message 19: by Christopher (new)

Christopher Fireside Chats

The fireside chats were a series of thirty evening radio addresses given by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt between 1933 and 1944. Although the World War I Committee on Public Information had seen presidential policy propagated to the public en masse, ‘fireside chats’ were the first media development that facilitated intimate and direct communication between the president and the citizens of the United States. Roosevelt’s cheery voice and demeanor played him into the favor of citizens and he soon became one of the most popular presidents ever, often affectionately compared to Abraham Lincoln. On radio, he was able to quell rumors and explain his reasons for social change slowly and in a comprehensible manner. Radio was especially convenient for Roosevelt because it enabled him to hide his polio symptoms from the public eye.

Origin of Radio Address
According to Pulitzer Prize winning historian and Roosevelt biographer James MacGregor Burns, Roosevelt first used what would become known as "fireside chats" in 1929 as Governor of New York. Roosevelt faced a conservative Republican legislature, so during each legislative session, he would occasionally address the citizens of New York directly. In a New York History Quarterly article on the fireside chats' origin, Geoffrey Storm notes that while a WGY radio "address of April 3, 1929 was Roosevelt's third gubernatorial radio address, historian Frank Freidel asserts that this was the first fireside chat." In these speeches, Roosevelt appealed to radio listeners for help getting his agenda passed. Letters would pour in following each of these "chats," which helped pressure legislators to pass measures Roosevelt had proposed. He began making the informal addresses as president on March 12, 1933, during the Great Depression. According to Russell D. Buhite and David W. Levy, in their introduction to Roosevelt's Fireside Chats, "The term 'Fireside Chat' was not coined by Roosevelt, but by Harry C. Butcher of CBS, who used the two words in a network press release before the speech of May 7, 1933. The term was quickly adopted by press and public, and the president himself later used it."

Chronological List of Presidential Fireside Chats
1. On the Bank Crisis - Sunday, March 12, 1933
2. Outlining the New Deal Program - Sunday, May 7, 1933
3. On the Purposes and Foundations of the Recovery Program - Monday, July 24, 1933
4. On the Currency Situation - Sunday, October 22, 1933
5. Review of the Achievements of the Seventy-third Congress - Thursday, June 28, 1934
6. On Moving Forward to Greater Freedom and Greater Security - Sunday, September 30, 1934
7. On the Works Relief Program - Sunday, April 28, 1935
8. On Drought Conditions - Sunday, September 6, 1936
9. On the Reorganization of the Judiciary - Tuesday, March 9, 1937
10. On Legislation to be Recommended to the Extraordinary Session of the Congress - Tuesday, October 12, 1937
11. On the Unemployment Census - Sunday, November 14, 1937
12. On Economic Conditions - Thursday, April 14, 1938
13. On Party - Friday, June 24, 1938
14. On the European War - Sunday, September 3, 1939
15. On National Defense - Sunday, May 26, 1940
16. On National Security - Sunday, December 29, 1940
17. Announcing Unlimited National Emergency - Tuesday, May 27, 1941 (the longest fireside chat)
18. On Maintaining Freedom of the Seas - Thursday, September 11, 1941
19. On the Declaration of War with Japan - Tuesday, December 9, 1941
20. On Progress of the War - Monday, February 23, 1942
21. On Our National Economic Policy - Tuesday, April 28, 1942
22. On Inflation and Progress of the War - Monday, September 7, 1942
23. Report on the Home Front - Monday, October 12, 1942
24. On the Coal Crisis - Sunday, May 2, 1943
25. On Progress of War and Plans for Peace - Wednesday, July 28, 1943
26. Opening Third War Loan Drive - Wednesday, September 8, 1943
27. On Tehran and Cairo Conferences - Friday, December 24, 1943
28. State of the Union Message to Congress - Tuesday, January 11, 1944
29. On the Fall of Rome - Monday, June 5, 1944
30. Opening Fifth War Loan Drive - Monday, June 12, 1944

Rhetorical Manner
Sometimes beginning his talks with "Good evening, friends." Roosevelt urged listeners to have faith in the banks and to support his New Deal measures. The "fireside chats" were considered enormously successful and attracted more listeners than the most popular radio shows during the "Golden Age of Radio." Roosevelt continued his broadcasts into the 1940s, as Americans turned their attention to World War II. Roosevelt's first fireside chat was March 12, 1933, which marked the beginning of a series of 30 radio broadcasts to the American people reassuring them the nation was going to recover and shared his hopes and plans for the country. The chats ranged from fifteen to forty-five minutes and eighty percent of the words used were in the one thousand most commonly used words in the English dictionary.

No longer was the message of the administration to be tinkered with by the interpretations of the press, Roosevelt was simply going to tell the people what he was doing and why. This level of intimacy with politics made people feel as if they too were part of the administrations decision-making process and many soon felt that they knew Roosevelt personally and most importantly, they grew to trust him. He was thus able to implement the most radical social overhaul in U.S history without much internal dissent.

Weekly Address and the Effect on the Press
Every U.S. president since Roosevelt has delivered periodic addresses to the American people, first on radio, and later adding television and the Internet. The practice of regularly scheduled addresses began in 1982 when President Ronald Reagan started delivering a radio broadcast every Saturday. Conservative journalist William A. Rusher, who publicly urged Reagan to begin the series of broadcasts, explicitly referred to the "fireside chats" and compared Reagan's communications skills to those of Roosevelt. Although the "fireside chats" are sometimes thought of as weekly events, Roosevelt delivered just 30 addresses during the course of a presidency that lasted for 4,422 days, or 631 weeks, an average of one address every twenty weeks.

Reagan's successors have continued his practice of making weekly addresses, though such addresses have rarely attracted large numbers of listeners (perhaps because of the much more fragmented mass audience than that of the Roosevelt era). When President Barack Obama took office, he began providing his address in both audio and video forms, both of which are available online via and YouTube. It has long become customary for the President's Weekly Radio Address to be followed an hour later (on the radio) by a 'response' (not always a topical response) by a member of the opposing political party. The respondent from the opposing party changes weekly, while the President is the same for the entirety of their term. Occasionally the Vice President may deliver the address in the absence of the President.

The conventional press grew to love Roosevelt because they too had gained unprecedented access to the goings-on of government like never before. Roosevelt’s opponents had control of most newspapers during his first bid for the presidency but he cleverly circumnavigated their influence by penetrating directly into the living rooms of citizens with radio addresses. It became increasingly difficult to voice opposition to government policy because the president carried more clout than any reporter or other politician. He was able to personally address the nation if any issue was controversial, like he did on October 16, 1940, when he spoke on the radio about the first ever peacetime draft he had ordered a month earlier. He did this less than a month before presidential elections were to take place, which for any other president would probably have been political suicide, but Roosevelt was able to use his new media techniques to garner domestic support for this international policy. The effectiveness was again proven when he was re-elected with 10% more of the popular vote than his opponent.

Radio technology, along with Roosevelt’s charm in his approach to the media, had once again revolutionized the relationship between the public and the administration. Simultaneously, the role of the president had begun to change; it was now imperative that he be a charismatic impromptu speaker as well as classically stoic in formal situations. The president’s personality was becoming an increasingly important factor in elections. Such a huge development would not be seen again until the next great technological communication tool reached maturity, and that was to be television.

No Ordinary Time Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by Doris Kearns Goodwin by Doris Kearns Goodwin Doris Kearns Goodwin
Fireside Chats by Franklin D. Roosevelt by Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin D. Roosevelt
FDR by Jean Edward Smith by Jean Edward Smith Jean Edward Smith
The Defining Moment FDR's Hundred Days and the Triumph of Hope by Jonathan Alter by Jonathan Alter by Jonathan Alter
The Forgotten Man by Amity Shlaes by Amity Shlaes Amity Shlaes
FDR Into the Storm 1937-1940 by Kenneth Sydney Davis by Kenneth Sydney Davis (no photo)
FDR's Fireside Chats by Russell D. Buhite by Russell D. Buhite (no photo)
FDR's First Fireside Chat Public Confidence and the Banking Crisis by Amos Kiewe by Amos Kiewe (no photo)
FDR Goes to War How Expanded Executive Power, Spiraling National Debt, and Restricted Civil Liberties Shaped Wartime America by Burton W. Folsom Jr. by Burton W. Folsom Jr. (no photo)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt by Alan Brinkley by Alan Brinkley (no photo)

message 20: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) Clare Hoffman: US House of Representative

Clare Eugene Hoffman (September 10, 1875 – November 3, 1967) was a United States Representative from Michigan.

Hoffman was born in Vicksburg, Union County, Pennsylvania, where he attended the public schools. He graduated from the law department of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, in 1895. He was admitted to the Michigan bar in 1896 and commenced practice in Allegan, Michigan, where he also became prosecuting attorney for the county from 1904–1910.

In 1934, Hoffman ran as the Republican candidate for Michigan's 4th congressional district, defeating incumbent Democrat George Ernest Foulkes. Hoffman was elected to the Seventy-fourth and was re-elected to the thirteen succeeding Congresses, serving from January 3, 1935 until January 3, 1963. He was seen as a "a bitter lone wolf" during much of his time in office, unable to work with either the Democrats or the Republicans.

Hoffman was a vocal opponent of the National Polio Immunization Program, claiming that the U.S. Public Health Service had been heavily infiltrated by Russian-born doctors. In addition, he was known as an anti-Semite with fascist sympathies, even speaking at rallies held for the far-right America First Party (1944).

He was chairman, Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments (Eightieth Congress) and the Committee on Government Operations (Eighty-third Congress). He was not a candidate for renomination in 1962 to the Eighty-eighth Congress.

Hoffman retired to his home in Allegan, Michigan, where he died at age 92. He was interred at Oakwood Cemetery in Allegan.

Not Without Honor The History of American Anticommunism by Richard Gid Powers by Richard Gid Powers (no photo)
The Contested Boundaries of American Public Health by James Colgrove by James Colgrove (no photo)
Out of the Jungle Jimmy Hoffa and the Remaking of the American Working Class by Thaddeus Russell by Thaddeus Russell (no photo
Congress and the Cold War by Robert David Johnson by Robert David Johnson (no photo)
Congress and the Classroom From the Cold War to "No Child Left Behind" by Lee W. Anderson by Lee W. Anderson (no photo)
December 1941 The Month That Changed America And Saved The World by Craig Shirley by Craig Shirley (no photo)

message 21: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Walter Beddell Smith

Walter Beddell Smith (born October 5, 1895, Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.—died August 9, 1961, Washington, D.C.), U.S. Army general, diplomat, and administrator who served as chief of staff for U.S. forces in Europe during World War II.

Smith began his military career as an enlisted man in the Indiana National Guard (1910–15) and in 1917 was commissioned a second lieutenant of infantry in the U.S. Army. He fought briefly in World War I, and, advancing through grades, he served in the United States and the Philippines and taught in the U.S. Army Infantry School, Fort Benning, Georgia. In February 1942 he was named secretary of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and U.S. secretary of the Anglo-American Combined Chiefs of Staff, with the rank of brigadier general. The following September he became chief of staff of the European theatre of operations and chief of staff to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, serving in those posts until Eisenhower’s departure from Europe after the war. He negotiated and accepted for the Allies the surrender of Italy (1943) and of Germany (1945).

On returning to the United States in 1945, Smith became chief of the operations and planning division of the War Department general staff. Shortly afterward he was appointed U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, a post he held from 1946 to 1949. Later he commanded the U.S. First Army (1949–50) and was director of central intelligence (1950–53), becoming general in 1951. He retired from the army in 1953 to become undersecretary of state. In October 1954 he resigned from government service and entered private business.

Beetle The Life of General Walter Bedell Smith by D.K.R. Crosswell by D.K.R. Crosswell (no photo)
The Chief of Staff The Military Career of General Walter Bedell Smith by D.K.R. Crosswell by D.K.R. Crosswell (no photo)
Shadow Warrior William Egan Colby and the CIA by Randall B. Woods by Randall B. Woods (no photo)
General Walter Bedell Smith as Director of Central Intelligence, October 1950-February 1953 by Ludwell Montague by Ludwell Montague (no photo)
Enemies A History of the FBI by Tim Weiner by Tim WeinerTim Weiner
(no image) My Three Years in Moscow My Three Years in Moscow by Walter Bedell Smith (no photo)
(no image) Eisenhower's Six Great Decisions by Walter Bedell Smith (no photo)

message 22: by Christopher (new)

Christopher General Leonard T. Gerow

Leonard Townsend Gerow (July 13, 1888 – October 12, 1972) was a United States Army general.

Gerow was born in Petersburg, Virginia. The name Gerow is derived from the French name "Giraud". Gerow attended high school in Petersburg and then attended the Virginia Military Institute. He was three times elected class president. He graduated as recipient of the "Honor Appointment" which, at the time, permitted one man in each VMI graduating class to become a Regular Army second lieutenant without further examination. He was commissioned a 2nd lieutenant in the army 29 September 1911.

Prior to World War I, General Gerow served in a series of assignments as a company grade officer in the Infantry. In 1915 he won commendation for his work in the 1915 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas. He served in Vera Cruz in the Mexican Campaign. He was promoted to first lieutenant on 1 July 1916 and later to captain on 15 May 1917.

From 16 January 1918 to 30 June 1920 and during World War I he served on the Signal Corps staff in France. He was colonel (temporary) in charge of purchasing all the radio equipment for the AEF. For his service he earned the Distinguished Service Medal and French Legion of Honor.

After returning to America, he was promoted to permanent rank of major on 1 July 1920. He was ordered to attend the advanced course at the U.S. Army Infantry School at Fort Benning, Georgia, in the fall of 1924. He graduated first in the class in 1925 from the Advanced Course at Infantry School. Of note was Omar Bradley who graduated second. Gerow attended the U.S. Army Command and General Staff school, where Dwight Eisenhower was his study partner, and graduated in 1926, ranking 11th in the class of 245. In 1931 he completed the Field Officer's Course in Chemical Warfare and Tanks and took a course at Army War College.

General Gerow served in China in 1932 in the Shanghai sector. On 1 August 1935 he was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant colonel. On 1 September 1940 he became a colonel in permanent grade and a month later, on 1 October 1940 became a temporary brigadier general.

Gerow was promoted to major general on 14 February 1942 and became commanding general of 29th Infantry Division 16 February 1942. He received the Legion of Merit on 27 September 1943 for his work as a division commander and as Assistant Chief of Staff of the War Plans Division. He continued as commander of the division until 17 July 1943.

He became commander of V Corps on 17 July 1943. This was the largest unit of troops in the European Theater of Operations. He played a major part in the planning of the invasion of continental Europe. He was the first corps commander ashore on D-Day, June 6, 1944. The V Corps was composed of two infantry divisions: the U.S. 29th Infantry Division and the U.S. 1st Infantry Division. His tenure as commander of V Corps was from 17 July 1943 to 17 September 1944 and again 5 October 1944 to 14 January 1945. General Gerow kept close to his advancing troops in V Corps. He was the first American officer of the rank of major general to enter Paris after its liberation by the 2nd French Armored and U.S. 4th Infantry. For his part in this campaign he was awarded the Silver Star.

Both Eisenhower and Bradley held Gerow in high regard and ranked him as one of the top U.S. field commanders of World War II. In a February 1945 memo Dwight D. Eisenhower listed the principal American commanders in order of merit based on the value of their service during the war. Gerow was listed 8th of 32. In a letter to George Marshall on April 26, 1945, regarding commanders who might go on to serve in the Pacific, General Eisenhower commended General Omar Bradley most highly and then said: "In Europe there are other men who have been thoroughly tested as high combat commanders, including Simpson, Patch, Patton, Gerow, Collins, Truscott and others. Any one of these can successfully lead an Army in combat in the toughest kind of conditions." Gerow was given command of U.S. Fifteenth Army 15 January 1945. He was promoted to lieutenant general on 6 February 1945, with the promotion being effective 1 January 1945.

After the war Lieutenant General Gerow was appointed commandant of the army’s Command and General Staff School. Gerow was placed in charge of a board which studied and proposed how army colleges ought to be organized, post war. In February 1946 the Gerow Board recommended five separate colleges. In January 1948, he was appointed commanding general, U.S. Second Army. This was his last post; he retired July 1950. Gerow was appointed a general on July 19, 1954 by special Act of Congress (Public Law 83-508). General Gerow's brother, Lee S. Gerow graduated from VMI in 1913 and rose to the rank of brigadier general.

Beyond the Beachhead The 29th Infantry Division in Normandy by Joseph Balkoski Omaha Beach D-Day, June 6, 1944 by Joseph Balkoski by Joseph Balkoski Joseph Balkoski
Eisenhower in War and Peace by Jean Edward Smith by Jean Edward Smith Jean Edward Smith
Omaha Beach by Erica Olson Jeffrey by Erica Olson Jeffrey Erica Olson Jeffrey
Is Paris Burning? by Larry Collins by Larry Collins Larry Collins
The Supreme Commander The War Years of Dwight D. Eisenhower by Stephen E. Ambrose by Stephen E. Ambrose Stephen E. Ambrose
A Soldier's Story by Omar Nelson Bradley by Omar Nelson Bradley Omar Nelson Bradley
Omaha Beach by Georges Bernage by Georges Bernage (no photo)
Omaha Beach A Flawed Victory by Adrian R. Lewis by Adrian R. Lewis (no photo)
Leonard T. Gerow by Jesse Russell by Jesse Russell (no photo)
People From Petersburg, Virginia Joseph Cotten, Moses Malone, Frederick Benteen, Blair Underwood, Leonard T. Gerow, Trey Songz by Books LLC by Books LLC (no photo)
The D-Day Companion (Special Editions (Military)) by Jane Penrose by Jane Penrose (no photo)
Marshall and His Generals U.S. Army Commanders in World War II by Stephen R. Taaffe by Stephen R. Taaffe (no photo)
A Dark and Bloody Ground The Hurtgen Forest and the Roer River Dams, 1944-1945 by Edward G. Miller by Edward G. Miller (no photo)
Corps Commanders of the Bulge Six American Generals and Victory in the Ardennes by Harold R. Winton by Harold R. Winton (no photo)

message 23: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Martin Leonard Sweeney

Martin Leonard Sweeney, (father of Robert E. Sweeney), a Representative from Ohio; born in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, April 15, 1885; attended the parochial and public schools; was graduated from the Cleveland Law School of Baldwin-Wallace College, Cleveland, Ohio, in 1914; employed as a laborer 1901-1903; as a hoisting engineer 1904-1908, and as a salesman 1910-1913; member of the State house of representatives in 1913 and 1914; was admitted to the bar in 1914 and commenced practice in Cleveland, Ohio; judge of the municipal court of Cleveland 1924-1932; delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1932; elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-second Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Charles A. Mooney; reelected to the Seventy-third and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from November 3, 1931, to January 3, 1943; unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1942; unsuccessful for Democratic nomination for mayor of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1933 and in 1941, and for the gubernatorial nomination in 1944; practiced law in Cleveland, Ohio, until his death there May 1, 1960; interment in Calvary Cemetery.

Lost Cleveland Seven Wonders of the Sixth City by Michael DeAloia by Michael DeAloia (no photo)
Foxholes and Color Lines Desegregating the U.S. Armed Forces by Sherie Mershon by Sherie Mershon (no photo)
American Political Leaders 1789 2005 (American Leaders) by CQ Press Editors by Congressional Quarterly (no photo)
The Encyclopedia of the Republican Party The Encyclopedia of the Democratic Party by George Thomas Kurian by George Thomas Kurian (no photo)
(no image) Guide to Congress (Congressional Quarterly's Guide to Congress) Two Volume Set by Congressional Quarterly (no photo)

message 24: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Guadalcanal

The Guadalcanal Campaign, also known as the Battle of Guadalcanal and codenamed Operation Watchtower by Allied forces, was fought between August 7, 1942 and February 9, 1943 on and around the island of Guadalcanal in the Pacific theatre of World War II. It was part of the Allied strategic plan to protect the convoy routes between the US, Australia and New Zealand. Launched a few months after the Kokoda Track campaign, it was the second major offensive by Allied forces against the Empire of Japan.

On August 7, 1942, Allied forces, predominantly American, landed on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida in the southern Solomon Islands with the objective of denying their use by the Japanese as bases to threaten supply routes between the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand. The Allies also intended to use Guadalcanal and Tulagi as bases to support a campaign to eventually capture or neutralize the major Japanese base at Rabaul on New Britain. The Allies overwhelmed the outnumbered Japanese defenders, who had occupied the islands since May 1942, and captured Tulagi and Florida, as well as an airfield (later named Henderson Field) that was under construction on Guadalcanal.

Surprised by the Allied offensive, the Japanese made several attempts between August and November 1942 to retake Henderson Field. Three major land battles, five large naval battles, and continual, almost daily aerial battles culminated in the decisive Naval Battle of Guadalcanal in early November 1942, in which the last Japanese attempt to land enough troops to retake Henderson Field was defeated. In December 1942, the Japanese abandoned further efforts to retake Guadalcanal and evacuated their remaining forces by February 7, 1943 in the face of an offensive by the U.S. Army's XIV Corps, conceding the island to the Allies.

The Guadalcanal campaign was a significant strategic combined arms victory by Allied forces over the Japanese in the Pacific theatre. The Japanese had reached the high-water mark of their conquests in the Pacific, and Guadalcanal marked the transition by the Allies from defensive operations to the strategic offensive in that theatre and the beginning of offensive operations that resulted in Japan's eventual surrender and the end of World War II.

Carrier Clash The Invasion of Guadalcanal and the Battle of the Eastern Solomons August 1942 by Eric Hammel Guadalcanal Starvation Island by Eric Hammel Guadalcanal Decision at Sea The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal by Eric Hammel by Eric HammelEric Hammel
The Invasion of Italy/Guadalcanal The Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War II Volume 1 by Eddy Bauer by Eddy Bauer (no photo)
Guadalcanal by Edwin Palmer Hoyt by Edwin Palmer Hoyt (no photo)
Neptune's Inferno The U.S. Navy at Guadalcanal by James D. Hornfischer by James D. HornfischerJames D. Hornfischer
Japanese Destroyer Captain Pearl Harbor, Guadalcanal, Midway--The Great Naval Battles as Seen Through Japanese Eyes by Tameichi Hara by Tameichi Hara (no photo)
The Battle for Guadalcanal by Samuel B. Griffith by Samuel B. Griffith (no photo)
Challenge for the Pacific Guadalcanal The Turning Point of the War by Robert Leckie by Robert LeckieRobert Leckie
Into the Valley Marines at Guadalcanal by John Hersey by John HerseyJohn Hersey
Guadalcanal by Wallace B. Black by Wallace B. Black (no photo)
No Bended Knee The Battle for Guadalcanal by Merrill B. Twining by Merrill B. Twining (no photo)
Guadalcanal The Definitive Account of the Landmark Battle by Richard B. Frank by Richard B. Frank (no photo)
The Naval Battles for Guadalcanal 1942 Clash for supremacy in the Pacific by Mark Stille by Mark Stille (no photo)
Guadalcanal Diary by Richard Tregaskis by Richard TregaskisRichard Tregaskis
The Lost Ships Of Guadalcanal by Robert D. Ballard by Robert D. BallardRobert D. Ballard
Alone on Guadalcanal A Coastwatcher's Story by Martin Clemens by Martin Clemens (no photo)
Islands of Destiny The Solomons Campaign and the Eclipse of the Rising Sun by John Prados by John Prados (no photo)
First Offensive The Marine Campaign for Guadalcanal by Henry I. Shaw by Henry I. Shaw (no photo)
Operation KE The Cactus Air Force and the Japanese Withdrawal from Guadalcanal by Roger Letourneau by Roger Letourneau (no photo)
Bloody Ridge The Battle That Saved Guadalcanal by Michael T. Smith by Michael T. Smith (no photo)
Morning of the Rising Sun by Kenneth I. Friedman by Kenneth I. Friedman (no photo)
Vengeance At Midway and Guadalcanal (A Novel of War) by Leland Shanle by Leland ShanleLeland Shanle
Hell's Islands The Untold Story of Guadalcanal by Stanley Coleman Jersey by Stanley Coleman Jersey (no photo)
(no image) The campaign for Guadalcanal;: A battle that made history by Jack Coggins (no photo)

message 25: by Christopher (new)

Christopher Sol Bloom - Representative from Manhattan - Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee

Sol Bloom (March 9, 1870 – March 7, 1949) was an American politician from New York who began his career as an entertainment impresario and sheet music publisher. He served fourteen terms in the United States House of Representatives from 1922 until his death in 1949.

Bloom was born March 9, 1870, in Pekin, Illinois, to Polish-Jewish immigrants who soon moved to San Francisco. He was introduced to theater production in his early teens, then became a theater manager, staging boxing matches featuring "Gentleman Jim" Corbett. Seeking ever more spectacular attractions, he attended the Exposition Universelle (1889) in Paris, where he was particularly taken with the dancers and acrobats of the "Algerian Village," somewhat representative of France's Algerian colony.

Bloom established his reputation in 1893 at the age of 23 while developing the mile-long Midway Plaisance at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Midway Plaisance offered enticing games and exhibitions presented by private vendors, removed from the somewhat icy Beaux-Arts splendor of the official exposition and arranged around its "Court of Honor". After initially entrusting the midway to a Harvard anthropology professor, the committee turned to Bloom, whose "Midway" was so successful that the term resided henceforth in the American lexicon. At the "Street in Cairo", the North African belly dance was reinvented as the "hootchy-kootchy dance" to a tune made up by Bloom, "The Streets of Cairo, or the Poor Little Country Maid", whose century-old lyrics had traditionally been sung by young boys: "O they don't wear pants/on the sunny side of France"; "There's a place in France/where the women wear no pants"; "...where the naked ladies dance", etc. Bloom did not copyright the tune, which he'd conceived on a piano at the Press Club of Chicago.

Bloom's role in helping to develop the fair had been at the behest of Mayor Carter Harrison, Sr., who was assassinated only days before the exposition closed. Bloom then rose in stature in Chicago's tough First Ward among the Democratic party's bosses "Bathhouse" John Coughlin and "Hinky Dink" Kenna. Soon, he became Chicago branch manager of M. Witmark & Sons, the largest publisher of sheet music in the United States, and by 1896 he was publishing under his own name and introducing photolithographs to make the scores more visually appealing. In 1897 he married Evelyn Hechheimer and settled in a fashionable district on South Prairie Avenue, billing himself as "Sol Bloom, the Music Man". At the turn of the 20th century, he was awarded, to much fanfare, the first musical copyright of the new century for "I Wish I Was in Dixie Land Tonight" by Raymond A. Browne.

In 1903 he moved to New York, where he dabbled in real estate and expanded his national chain of department store music departments. In New York he sold Victor Talking Machines. Bloom soon switched his political affiliation from Republican to the Democrats' Tammany Hall, so that when Representative-elect Samuel Marx of New York’s 19th Congressional District died in 1922, Bloom was invited to run and won the usually Republican "silk stocking district" of Manhattan's Upper East Side by 145 votes. He represented the district until his death in 1949.

In Congress he oversaw celebration of the George Washington Bicentennial (1932) and presided over the U.S. Constitution Sesquicentennial Exposition (1937). He chaired the House Committee on Foreign Affairs in 1938. A strong supporter of Zionism, Bloom was a delegate to the convention in San Francisco that established the United Nations. The first words of the Preamble to the United Nations Charter, "We, the Peoples of the United Nations..." were suggested by Bloom.

In January 1946, Bloom represented the US at the first meeting of the UN General Assembly in London. He called his success in persuading a majority of the Assembly to allow the new United Nations organization to assume the finances of the earlier United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration "the supreme moment" of his life.

The Sol Bloom Playground in Manhattan is named in his honor. His papers, most of them dating from 1935 to 1949, are stored at the New York Public Library. Bloom lost a bet with Washington Senators pitcher Walter Johnson after Johnson successfully threw a silver dollar across Fredericksburg, Virginia's Rappahannock River. Although the wager had been highly publicized, Bloom cited technicalities and refused to pay.

The Devil in the White City Murder, Magic, and Madness at the Fair that Changed America by Erik Larson by Erik Larson Erik Larson
Act of Creation The Founding of the United Nations A Story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World by Stephen C. Schlesinger by Stephen C. Schlesinger Stephen C. Schlesinger
The Parliament of Man The Past, Present, and Future of the United Nations by Paul M. Kennedy by Paul M. Kennedy Paul M. Kennedy
The Autobiography of Sol Bloom by Sol Bloom The Story of the Constitution by Sol Bloom by Sol Bloom (no photo)
The United Nations by Jussi M. Hanhimaki by Jussi M. Hanhimaki (no photo)
FDR And The Creation Of The U.N. by Townsend Hoopes by Townsend Hoopes (no photo)

message 26: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) Congressman James Wadsworth Jr.

James Wolcott Wadsworth Jr. (August 12, 1877 – June 21, 1952) was a U.S. Republican politician from New York. He was the son of New York State Comptroller James Wolcott Wadsworth, Sr., and the grandson of Union General James Samuel Wadsworth, Sr.

Wadsworth attended St. Mark's School, then graduated from Yale in New Haven, Connecticut in 1898, where he was a member of Skull and Bones. He immediately entered the livestock and farming business, first in New York and then Texas.

He became active early in Republican politics. He was a member of the New York State Assembly (Livingston Co.) in 1905, 1906, 1907, 1908, 1909 and 1910; and was Speaker from 1906 to 1910.

In 1912, he ran for Lieutenant Governor of New York on the Republican ticket with Job. E. Hedges, but was defeated. In 1914, at the first popular election for the U.S. Senate (until 1911, the U.S. senators had been elected by the New York State Legislature), Wadsworth defeated Democrat James W. Gerard (the incumbent United States Ambassador to Germany) and Progressive Bainbridge Colby. Wadsworth was the Senate Minority Whip in 1915 because the Democrats held the majority of Senate seats. He was re-elected in 1920, but defeated by Democrat Robert F. Wagner in 1926. In 1921, Wadsworth was considered for the post of Secretary of War by President Warren G. Harding but was ultimately passed over in favor of John W. Weeks.

Wadsworth was a proponent of individual rights and feared what he considered the threat of federal intervention into the private lives of Americans. He believed that the only purpose of the United States Constitution is to limit the powers of government and to protect the rights of citizens. For this reason, he voted against the Eighteenth Amendment when it was before the Senate. Before prohibition went into effect, Wadsworth predicted that there would be widespread violations and contempt for the law.

In 1926, he joined the Association Against the Prohibition Amendment and made 131 speeches across the country for the organization between then and repeal. His political acumen and contacts proved valuable in overturning prohibition.

Wadsworth also opposed women's suffrage. His wife, Alice Hay Wadsworth (daughter of former United States Secretary of State John Hay), served as president of the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage.

He served as a United States Representative from 1933–1951, and, like Claude Pepper, is one of the few modern Senators to serve later in the House of Representatives. In the House of Representatives he opposed the isolationism of many of his conservative Republican colleagues, opposed anti-lynching legislation on state's rights grounds, rejected minimum wage laws and most of FDR's domestic policy. Although Wadsworth never ran for president, his name was mentioned as a possible candidate in 1936 and 1944.

His son, James Jeremiah Wadsworth, served as United States Ambassador to the United Nations. His son-in-law was Stuart Symington, the first Secretary of the Air Force and a Democratic U.S. Senator from Missouri, who unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1960. His grandson, James W. Symington, served in the U.S. House of Representatives from Missouri as a Democrat.

Wadsworth is buried in Temple Hill Cemetery in Geneseo.

The First Peacetime Draft by J. Garry Clifford by J. Garry Clifford (no photo)

The Draft, 1940-1973 by George Q. Flynn by George Q. Flynn (no photo)
The Military Draft Handbook A Brief History and Practical Advice for the Curious and Concerned by James Tracy by James TracyJames Tracy
(no image) The Wadsworths of the Genesee by Alden R. Hatch (no photo)
(no image)Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 by Jesse Russell (no photo)
(no image)James W. Wadsworth, Jr.: The Gentleman from New York by Martin L. Fausold (no photo)

message 27: by Mark (new)

Mark Mortensen Bombing of Tokyo

On this day [March 9, 1945], U.S. warplanes launch a new bombing offensive against Japan, dropping 2,000 tons of incendiary bombs on Tokyo over the course of the next 48 hours. Almost 16 square miles in and around the Japanese capital were incinerated, and between 80,000 and 130,000 Japanese civilians were killed in the worst single firestorm in recorded history.

Early on March 9, Air Force crews met on the Mariana Islands of Tinian and Saipan for a military briefing. They were planning a low-level bombing attack on Tokyo that would begin that evening, but with a twist: Their planes would be stripped of all guns except for the tail turret. The decrease in weight would increase the speed of each Superfortress bomber-and would also increase its bomb load capacity by 65 percent, making each plane able to carry more than seven tons. Speed would be crucial, and the crews were warned that if they were shot down, all haste was to be made for the water, which would increase their chances of being picked up by American rescue crews. Should they land within Japanese territory, they could only expect the very worst treatment by civilians, as the mission that night was going to entail the deaths of tens of thousands of those very same civilians. "You're going to deliver the biggest firecracker the Japanese have ever seen," said U.S. Gen. Curtis LeMay.

The cluster bombing of the downtown Tokyo suburb of Shitamachi had been approved only a few hours earlier. Shitamachi was composed of roughly 750,000 people living in cramped quarters in wooden-frame buildings. Setting ablaze this "paper city" was a kind of experiment in the effects of firebombing; it would also destroy the light industries, called "shadow factories," that produced prefabricated war materials destined for Japanese aircraft factories.

The denizens of Shitamachi never had a chance of defending themselves. Their fire brigades were hopelessly undermanned, poorly trained, and poorly equipped. At 5:34 p.m., Superfortress B-29 bombers took off from Saipan and Tinian, reaching their target at 12:15 a.m. on March 10. Three hundred and thirty-four bombers, flying at a mere 500 feet, dropped their loads, creating a giant bonfire fanned by 30-knot winds that helped raze Shitamachi and spread the flames throughout Tokyo. Masses of panicked and terrified Japanese civilians scrambled to escape the inferno, most unsuccessfully. The human carnage was so great that the blood-red mists and stench of burning flesh that wafted up sickened the bomber pilots, forcing them to grab oxygen masks to keep from vomiting.

The raid lasted slightly longer than three hours. "In the black Sumida River, countless bodies were floating, clothed bodies, naked bodies, all black as charcoal. It was unreal," recorded one doctor at the scene. Only 243 American airmen were lost-considered acceptable losses.

Mission to Tokyo The American Airmen Who Took the War to the Heart of Japan by Robert F. Dorr by Robert F. DorrRobert F. Dorr
I Saw Tokyo Burning An Eyewitness Narrative From Pearl Harbor To Hiroshima by Robert Guillain by Robert Guillain (no photo)
BLANKETS OF FIRE  by Kenneth P. Werrell by Kenneth P. Werrell (no photo)
Superfortress The Boeing B-29 and American Airpower in World War II by Curtis LeMay by Curtis LeMay (no photo)
Downfall The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire by Richard B. Frank by Richard B. Frank (no photo)

message 28: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) Major General James Wadsworth

Despite his complete lack of military experience at the outbreak of the Civil War, Wadsworth was commissioned a major general in the New York state militia in May 1861. He served as a civilian volunteer aide-de-camp to Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 8. McDowell recommended him for command and, on August 9, Wadsworth was commissioned a brigadier general; on October 3 he received command of the 2nd Brigade in McDowell's Division of the Army of the Potomac. He then led the 2nd Brigade, 3rd Division, of the I Corps of the army until March 17.

From March 17 to September 7, 1862, Wadsworth commanded the Military District of Washington. During the preparations for Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign, Wadsworth complained to President Abraham Lincoln that he had insufficient troops to defend the capital due to McClellan's plan to take a large number of them with him to the Virginia Peninsula. Lincoln countermanded McClellan's plan and restored a full corps to the Washington defenses, generating ill feelings between McClellan and Wadsworth. Seeing no prospects for serving in McClellan's army, Wadsworth allowed his name to be put into nomination for governor of New York against antiwar Democrat Horatio Seymour, but he declined to leave active duty to campaign and lost the election.

After McClellan left the Army of the Potomac, and after the serious Union defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg, Wadsworth was appointed commander of the 1st Division, I Corps on December 27, 1862, replacing Brig. Gen. John Gibbon, who had been promoted to command of the 2nd Division in the II Corps. He led this division until June 15, 1863, with two brief stints commanding the I Corps in January and March for about ten days combined.

Wadsworth and his division's first test in combat was at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. He made a faltering start in maneuvering his men across the Rappahannock River below Fredericksburg and they ended up being only lightly engaged during the battle. His performance at the Battle of Gettysburg was much more substantial. Arriving in the vanguard of Maj. Gen. John F. Reynolds's I Corps on July 1, 1863, Wadsworth's division bore much of the brunt of the overwhelming Confederate attack that morning and afternoon. They were able to hold out against attacks from both the west and north, providing the time to bring up sufficient forces to hold the high ground south of town and eventually win the battle. But by the time the division retreated back through town to Cemetery Hill that evening, it had suffered over 50% casualties. summit of the hill.

I Corps had been so significantly damaged at Gettysburg that, when the Army of the Potomac was reorganized in March 1864, its surviving regiments were dispersed to other corps. After an eight-month leave of absence, much of it spent inspecting colored troops on duty in the Mississippi Valley, Wadsworth was named commander of the 4th Division, V Corps, composed of troops from his old division and that formerly led by Maj. Gen. Abner Doubleday. This speaks well for his performance at Gettysburg, because a number of his contemporaries were left without assignments when the army reorganized or were sent to minor assignment elsewhere.

At the start of Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's 1864 Overland Campaign, Wadsworth led his division in Maj. Gen. Gouverneur K. Warren's V Corps at the Battle of the Wilderness. On this day Wadsworth was Grant's oldest divisional commander at 56 years old, about nine older than the next oldest. On May 5, Wadsworth was ordered to counter march and help defend the left of the Union position. However, he had lost his direction in the dense Wilderness underbrush and drifted to the north, exposing the left of his division to a sudden and harsh attack, which in turn led to the same treatment of the Union division next to Wadsworth.

Wadsworth was mortally wounded on May 6, trying to turn his two intact brigades (his other brigade had collided with the Federal units on his left and lost cohesion) when he was shot in the back of his head. Wadsworth fell from his horse and was captured by Confederate forces that were pursuing his retreating men. He would die two days later in a Confederate field hospital. Wadsworth's son-in-law, Montgomery Harrison Ritchie, went into the Confederate camp to retrieve his body.

The day before he was wounded, he was promoted to major general, but this appointment was withdrawn and he received instead a posthumous brevet promotion to major general as of May 6, 1864, for his service at Gettysburg and the Wilderness.[2]

Wadsworth's remains were brought back to Geneseo, New York, and buried there in Temple Hill Cemetery. (Source:

General Wadsworth The Life And Wars Of Brevet General James S. Wadsworth by Wayne Mahood by Wayne Mahood (no photo)
The Battle of the Wilderness May 5-6, 1864 by Gordon C. Rhea by Gordon C. RheaGordon C. Rhea
The Battle of the Wilderness Deadly Inferno by Dan Abnett by Dan AbnettDan Abnett
Gettysburg The Final Fury by Bruce Catton by Bruce CattonBruce Catton
(no image) Old Waddy's coming!: The military career of Brigadier General James S. Wadsworth by John F Krumwiede (no photo)

message 29: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3948 comments General William Henry Stimson


Henry Lewis Stimson was born in New York City on 21st September, 1867. After attending Phillips Andover Academy he graduated from Yale University in 1888. He also studied at Harvard Law School before becoming a lawyer.

In 1906 Theodore Roosevelt appointed him as a US District Attorney for the Southern District of New York. He also served as Secretary of War under President William Taft (1911-13).

A member of the New York National Guard (1898-1907) Stimson served in the United States Army in the First World War. Stimson served as a lieutenant colonel in France before being promoted to command the 31st Field Artillery.

A member of the Republican Party, Stimson was appointed by Calvin Coolidge as Governor of General of the Philippines (1927-29) and served as Secretary of State under Herbert Hoover (1929-33). Stimson left public office when the Democratic Party candidate, Franklin D. Roosevelt, was elected president in 1933.

Stimson wrote extensively about foreign affairs and books published by him include American Policy in Nicaragua (1927), Democracy and Nationalism in Europe (1934) and The Far East Crisis (1936).

On the outbreak of war in Europe in 1939, Stimson was an outspoken advocate of support for the Allies against Nazi Germany. In an attempt to gain political unity for his policies Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Stimson, a prominent member of the Republican Party, as Secretary of War in his Democratic Party administration.

After the United States entered the Second World War in December, 1941, Stimson, who was now 74 years old, energetically organized America's industrial and economic resources in the fight against Japan and Germany.

When the Allies gained the upper hand in 1944 Stimson became an opponent of what he believed were needless bombing attacks on Germany. Stimson, who feared the dangers of communism in post-war Europe, argued that it was not in the long-term interests of the United States for the German economy to be completely destroyed. However, he had little impact on the policies of Curtis LeMay, the US Bomber Commander.

Stimson also objected on moral grounds to terror bombing and feared that the creation of firestorms in the cities of Germany and Japan would lead to charges of war crimes. He was particularly concerned about the United States Army Air Force bombing raid on Tokyo on 9th March, 1945, and told Robert Oppenheimer that he was appalled that there was so little protest in the United States about the tactics being used. Stimson also had strong doubts about the use of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Stimson, who did not enjoy a good relationship with President Harry S. Truman, retired from office on 21st September 1945. His memoirs, On Active Service in Peace and War, was published in 1948.

Henry Lewis Stimson died in Washington on 20th October, 1950.

Henry L. Stimson The First Wise Man by David F. Schmitz by David F. Schmitz (no photo)
Atomic Tragedy Henry L. Stimson and the Decision to Use the Bomb Against Japan by Sean L. Malloy by Sean L. Malloy (no photo)
Turmoil And Tradition by Elting E. Morison by Elting E. Morison (no photo)
The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950 (no image) by Godfrey Hodgson (no photo)
On Active Service in Peace and War (no image) by Henry L. Stimson (no photo)

message 30: by Christopher (new)

Christopher B-17 Flying Fortress

Official History
In response for the Army's request for a large, multiengine bomber, the B-17 (Model 299) prototype, financed entirely by Boeing, went from design board to flight test in less than 12 months.

The B-17 was a low-wing monoplane that combined aerodynamic features of the XB-15 giant bomber, still in the design stage, and the Model 247 transport. The B-17 was the first Boeing military aircraft with a flight deck instead of an open cockpit and was armed with bombs and five .30-caliber machine guns mounted in clear "blisters."

The first B-17s saw combat in 1941, when the British Royal Air Force took delivery of several B-17s for high-altitude missions. As World War II intensified, the bombers needed additional armament and armor.

The B-17E, the first mass-produced model Flying Fortress, carried nine machine guns and a 4,000-pound bomb load. It was several tons heavier than the prototypes and bristled with armament. It was the first Boeing airplane with the distinctive -- and enormous -- tail for improved control and stability during high-altitude bombing. Each version was more heavily armed.

In the Pacific, the planes earned a deadly reputation with the Japanese, who dubbed them "four-engine fighters." The Fortresses were also legendary for their ability to stay in the air after taking brutal poundings. They sometimes limped back to their bases with large chunks of the fuselage shot off.

Boeing plants built a total of 6,981 B-17s in various models, and another 5,745 were built under a nationwide collaborative effort by Douglas and Lockheed (Vega). Only a few B-17s survive today; most were scrapped at the end of the war. Some of the last Flying Fortresses met their end as target drones in the 1960s -- destroyed by Boeing Bomarc missiles.

- First flight: July 28, 1935 (prototype)
- Model number: 299
- Classification: Bomber
- Span: 103 feet 9 inches
- Length: 74 feet 9 inches
- Gross weight: 65,000 pounds
- Top speed: 287 mph
- Cruising speed: 150 mph
- Range (max.): 3,750 miles
- Ceiling: 35,600 feet
- Power: Four 1,200-horsepower Wright R-1820-97 engines
- Accommodation: 2 pilots, bombardier, radio operator, 5 gunners
- Armament: 11 to 13 machine guns, 9,600-pound bomb load

The B-17 Flying Fortress Story by Roger A. Freeman by Roger A. Freeman (no photo)
Claims to Fame The B-17 Flying Fortess by Steve Birdsall by Steve Birdsall (no photo)
The B-17 Flying Fortress by Robert Jackson by Robert Jackson (no photo)
The Boys in the B-17 8th Air Force Combat Stories of WWII by James Lee Hutchinson by James Lee Hutchinson (no photo)
The Bomber Boys True Stories of B-17 Airmen by Travis L. Ayres by Travis L. Ayres (no photo)
The Lady Boeing B 17 Flying Fortress by Paul Perkins by Paul Perkins (no photo)
The Complete Guide To Fighters & Bombers of World by Francis Crosby by Francis Crosby (no photo)
Flying Fortress The Boeing B-17 - Aircraft Specials series (6045) by Ernest R. McDowell by Ernest R. McDowell (no photo)
B-17 Flying Fortress Combat and Development History of the Flying Fortress by William N. Hess by William N. Hess (no photo)
(no image) Boeing Aircraft Since 1916 by Peter M. Bowers (no photo)

message 31: by Jill (new)

Jill Hutchinson (Bucs1960) HB 10132: Draft Extension Bill

On Aug. 12, 1941, the House passed a measure that the press called "the draft extension bill." The vote was 203 to 202. For a half-century, reputable historians have misstated the bill's purpose and exaggerated its importance.

The Selective Service Act of 1940 provided that a drafted man should serve for one year and then spend 10 years in the reserves, subject to call-up in case of war. In August 1941, the Army persuaded President Roosevelt to support a bill lengthening every draftee's service from one year to two and a half years.

When the newspapers called this a a draft extension bill, many thought it was a measure to renew the Act. This mistake quickly became conventional wisdom. A week after Roosevelt's death, Time magazine wrote of "the one-vote margin in the House, when the draft came up for extension four months before Pearl Harbor."

The mistake was given a respectable gloss when distinguished historians fell into the same trap. Samuel Eliot Morison wrote that "An Administration bill to extend conscription for the duration of the emergency . . . passed the House by a majority of only one vote." Much later, Barbara Tuchman wrote in "The March of Folly" of "the renewal of the one-year draft law."

The Selective Service Act was not a "one-year draft law." It did not have to be "renewed." But the mistake's repetition led to further error: the notion that if one House vote had gone the other way, the Army would have been virtually disbanded by the time Japan struck. Actually, if the bill had been defeated, less than 17,000 drafted men would have gone home before Dec. 7.

Perhaps the historians should not be blamed too much. It was obvious from the letters I received from alarmed constituents in 1941 that thousands of citizens thought the draft's continuation was at stake. Maybe the White House should shoulder some blame. Sam Rosenman, a Roosevelt speechwriter, wrote: "One vote the other way and the Army would have been thoroughly disorganized and crippled."

The Army did argue that if draftees weren't kept in uniform for longer than one year, the disruption would be disastrous. It failed to convince 60 representatives, including myself, who were staunch New Dealers and ordinarily followed Roosevelt's lead.

Our skepticism was justified. Shortly after the bill's passage, the Army announced that it was releasing all conscripts over 26, about 200,000 men, none of whom had completed even one year of training. This surprising act of self-disruption may have been caused partly by a shortage of equipment, but the obvious reason for it was the trainees' discontent over the bill's enactment.

Indeed, if the bill had been defeated, we would have had a larger Army on Dec. 7 than we actually had. (Source:

The March of Folly From Troy to Vietnam by Barbara W. Tuchman by Barbara W. TuchmanBarbara W. Tuchman
In Danger Undaunted The Anti-Interventionist Movement of 1940�1941 as Revealed in the Papers of the America First Committee by Justus D. Doenecke by Justus D. Doenecke (no photo)
Five Days In Philadelphia The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World by Charles Peters by Charles Peters (no photo)
The First Peacetime Draft by J. Garry Clifford by J. Garry Clifford (no photo)
(no image) James W. Wadsworth, Jr.: The Gentleman from New York by Martin L. Fausold (no photo)

message 32: by Christopher (new)

Christopher Charles Edison

Charles Edison (August 3, 1890 – July 31, 1969) was a son of Thomas Edison and Mina Miller. He was a businessman, who became Assistant and then United States Secretary of the Navy, and served as the 42nd Governor of New Jersey.

Born at his parents' home, Glenmont, in West Orange, New Jersey, he attended the Hotchkiss School in Lakeville, Connecticut. In 1915-1916 he operated the 100-seat "Little Thimble Theater" with Guido Bruno. There they played the works of George Bernard Shaw and August Strindberg while Charles contributed verse to "Bruno's Weekly" under the pseudonym "Tom Sleeper". Late in 1915, he brought his players to Ellis Island to perform for Chief Clerk Augustus Sherman and more than four hundred detained immigrants. These avant-garde activities came to a halt when his father put him to work. He married Carolyn Hawkins on March 27, 1918. They had no children. For a number of years Charles Edison ran Edison Records. Charles became president of his father's company Thomas A. Edison, Inc. in 1927, and ran it until it was sold in 1957, when it merged with the McGraw Electric Company to form the McGraw-Edison Electric Company. Edison was board chairman of the merged company until he retired in 1961.

On January 18, 1937, President Roosevelt appointed Charles Edison as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, then as Secretary on January 2, 1940, Claude A. Swanson having died several months previously. Edison himself only kept the job until June 24, resigning to run his gubernatorial campaign. During his time in the Navy department, he advocated construction of the large Iowa-class battleships, and that one of them be built at the Philadelphia Navy Yard, which secured votes for Roosevelt in Pennsylvania and New Jersey in the 1940 presidential election; in return, Roosevelt had BB-62 named the USS New Jersey.

In 1940, he won election as Governor of New Jersey, running in reaction to the political machine run by Frank Hague, but broke with family tradition by declaring himself a Democrat. As governor, he proposed updating the New Jersey State Constitution. Although it failed in a referendum and nothing was changed during his tenure, state legislators did reform the constitution later. In 1948, he established a charitable foundation, originally called "The Brook Foundation", now the Charles Edison Fund.

Between 1951 and 1969, he lived in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, where he struck up a friendship with Herbert Hoover, who also lived there. In 1962, Edison was one of the founders of the Conservative Party of New York State.

In 1967, Edison hosted a meeting at the Waldorf-Astoria in New York that led to the founding of the Charles Edison Youth Fund, later the Charles Edison Memorial Youth Fund. Attending the meeting were Rep. Walter Judd (R-Mn), author William F. Buckley, organizer David R. Jones, and Edison's political advisor Marvin Liebman. The name of the organization was changed in 1985 to The Fund for American Studies, in keeping with Edison's request to drop his name after 20 years of use.

His personal mascot was the owl, and he collected objects depicting owls. Charles Edison died on July 31, 1969 in New York City. He is buried in Rosedale Cemetery in Orange, New Jersey.

Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978 by Robert Sobel by Robert Sobel (no photo)
Uncommon Friends Life with Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, Alexis Carrel, and Charles Lindbergh by James D. Newton by James D. Newton (no photo)
The Governors of New Jersey Biographical Essays by Michael J. Birkner by Michael J. Birkner (no photo)
New Jersey A History of the Garden State by Maxine N. Lurie by Maxine N. Lurie (no photo)
(no image) The Governors of New Jersey, 1664-1974: Biographical Essays by Paul A. Stellhorn (no photo)

message 33: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Robert E. Sherwood

Robert E. Sherwood, in full Robert Emmet Sherwood (born April 4, 1896, New Rochelle, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 14, 1955, New York City), American playwright whose works reflect involvement in human problems, both social and political.

Sherwood was an indifferent student at Milton Academy and Harvard University, failing the freshman rhetoric course while performing well and happily on the Lampoon, the humour magazine, and with the Hasty Pudding club, which produced the annual college musical comedy. He left before graduation to enlist in 1917 in the Canadian Black Watch Battalion, served in France, was gassed, and was discharged in 1919.

Sherwood was drama editor of Vanity Fair (1919–20) and with his colleagues Dorothy Parker and Robert Benchley found his way to the Algonquin Round Table, the centre of a New York literary coterie. Sherwood then worked as associate editor (1920–24) and editor (1924–28) of the humour magazine Life. His first play, The Road to Rome (1927), criticizes the pointlessness of war, a recurring theme in many of his dramas. The heroes of The Petrified Forest (1935) and Idiot’s Delight (1936) begin as detached cynics but recognize their own bankruptcy and sacrifice themselves for their fellowmen. In Abe Lincoln in Illinois (1939) and There Shall Be No Night (1941), in which his pacifist heroes decide to fight, Sherwood’s thesis is that only by losing his life for others can a man make his own life significant. In 1938 Sherwood formed, with Maxwell Anderson, Sidney Howard, Elmer Rice, and S.N. Behrman, the Playwrights’ Company, which became a major producing company.

The Lincoln play led to Sherwood’s introduction to Eleanor Roosevelt and ultimately to his working for President Franklin D. Roosevelt as speechwriter and adviser. Sherwood’s speechwriting did much to make ghostwriting for public figures a respectable practice. Between service as special assistant to the secretary of war (1940) and to the secretary of the navy (1945), Sherwood served as director of the overseas branch of the Office of War Information (1941–44). From his wartime association with Roosevelt came much of the material for Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History. Except for his Academy Award-winning film The Best Years of Our Lives (1946), Sherwood’s theatrical work after World War II was negligible.

Roosevelt and Hopkins An Intimate History by Robert E. Sherwood by Robert E. Sherwood (no photo)
Robert E. Sherwood The Playwright in Peace and War by Harriet Hyman Alonso by Harriet Hyman Alonso (no photo)
The Worlds of Robert E. Sherwood Mirror to His Times, 1896-1939 by John Mason Brown by John Mason Brown (no photo)
That Man An Insider's Portrait of Franklin D. Roosevelt by Robert H. Jackson by Robert H. Jackson (no photo)
Complete Biographical Encyclopedia of Pulitzer Prize Winners 1917 - 2000 Journalists, Writers and Composers on Their Way to the Coveted Awards by Heinz-Dietrich by Heinz-Dietrich (no photo)
The Best Moving Pictures of 1922-23, Also Who's Who in the Movies and the Yearbook of the American Screen by Robert E. Sherwood Small War on Murray Hill. by Robert E. Sherwood Abe Lincoln in Illinois A Play in Twelve Scenes by Robert E. Sherwood The Road to Rome by Robert E. Sherwood There Shall Be No Night by Robert E. Sherwood Idiot's Delight by Robert E. Sherwood The Petrified Forest by Robert E. Sherwood all by Robert E. Sherwood (no photo)

message 34: by Christopher (new)

Christopher U.S. Army

The US Army of World War II was created from a tiny antebellum army in the space of three years. On 30 June 1939 the Regular Army numbered 187,893 men, including 22,387 in the Army Air Corps. On the same date the National Guard totaled 199,491 men. The major combat units included nine infantry divisions, two cavalry divisions, a mechanized cavalry (armor) brigade in the Regular Army and eighteen infantry divisions in the National Guard. Modern equipment was for the most part nonexistent and training in the National Guard units varied from fair to poor. The outbreak of war in Europe in September 1939 led to a gradual expansion of the Army. On 27 August 1940, Congress authorized the induction of the National Guard into Federal service. On 16 September 1940 the first peacetime draft in United States history was passed by Congress. However, the draftees were inducted for only one year. Fortunately, on 7 August 1941, by a margin of a single vote, Congress approved an indefinite extension of service for the Guard, draftees, and Reserve officers. Four months later to the day, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

Armor and Tank Types
US armored units underwent a considerable number of changes - most of them forced by operational requirements -- during the war. The most significant of these were the reorganization of the armored divisions in 1943 and the modified Tables of Equipment (TE) that were utilized by most tank battalions in Europe during late 1944 and early 1945. The modified TE was put in effect when losses of medium tanks in Europe outpaced the Army's ability to replace them and reduced the number of medium tanks in the battalion from fifty-three to forty-one. All of the light armored divisions and separate tank battalions in Europe in the fall of 1944 were placed on the modified establishment. It is probable that those divisions (8th, 9th, 10th, and 11th) and battalions that arrived in late 1944 retained the original TE, although some separate battalions were temporarily stripped of equipment to provide replacement stocks for the battalions that were already in combat. One battalion, the 740th, was stripped when it arrived in Europe in December 1944. Then it was hastily refitted from a British tank repair depot on 18 December and was flung into the path of KG Pieper during the Ardennes Offensive. The 740th's odd lot of equipment included M4s, Fireflies, M10 and M36 tank destroyers, and M8 armored cars, all of which were equipped with British radios -- which the Americans didn't know how to use! Despite this handicap the battalion (actually a reinforced company) materially assisted in halting Pieper's advance west of Stoumont Station by a combination of good luck and excellent gunnery.

Cavalry and Infantry
Reconnaissance in the armored divisions was performed by the armored reconnaissance battalion -- in the heavy division -- or by the cavalry reconnaissance squadron, mechanized -- in the light division. These units were identical, except that the battalion was organized as companies, the squadron as troops (although the light tank unit was a company in both organizations). In addition, each armored regiment had a reconnaissance company and each infantry division a reconnaissance troop (organized the same as below), while each tank battalion had a reconnaissance platoon. The mechanized cavalry squadrons were organized with three Cavalry Troops, lettered A to C, each equipped with 13 M8 armored cars and jeeps; an Assault Gun Troop, E, with six M8 HMC; a Light Tank Company, F, with 17 M5 Stuart, or later M24, tanks; a Service Company; and an H & H Company. The armored divisions reconnaissance squadron was identical except that it had a fourth Cavalry Troop, D, and the Assault Gun Troop had eight M8 HMC. Infantry divisions each had a single cavalry reconnaissance troop.

Artillery and AA Artillery
In World War I the artillery arm of the U.S. Army had fought in Europe equipped entirely with French or British weapons. There were many reasons for this: the need to standardize Allied arms, lack of shipping space, and lack of industrial capacity. However, another factor was that many ordnance specialists in Britain and France felt that the indigenous American gun designs were not up to European standards. As a result, in 1921 the U.S. Army Chief of Staff, General Charles P. Sommerall (one of the most brilliant artillerymen in U.S. Army history) established the Westervelt Board to examine the army's ordnance requirements for the future. The board's report was impartial and farsighted, and it had dramatic consequences for the U.S. Army artillery in World War II. The board recommended that the standard divisional artillery piece be increased in caliber from 75mm to 105mm, while the general support weapon for the division was to be standardized as the 155mm howitzer. The 4.7" corps general support gun (a British design) was to be discarded in favor of the 155mm gun (a French design). In addition, the board recommended that heavier pieces of the most modern type be designed, and that all artillery pieces be suitable for rapid motorized road movement. Finally, improvements in fire control methodology and communications were recommended, based upon concepts that had been pioneered by Summerall as an artillery brigade commander in France.

Engineers and Logistics
It was perhaps fitting that the U.S. Army, with an officer corps heavily influenced by the teachings of the United States Military Academy (which was the first engineering school in the United States), should be lavishly equipped with engineer troops and equipment. The divisional combat engineer battalions were capable of performing most engineering tasks (including demolitions, obstacle emplacement, fortification, and light bridge building) for the division. Additional battalions from corps or army augmented divisional engineers for more extensive tasks. Corps battalions were assigned to the command of an engineer group headquarters, which consisted of an H & H Company and an engineer light equipment company. Normally there were between three and six battalions in an engineer group and one or two groups per corps or army.

Manpower, Doctrine, and Training
In late 1944 a severe problem in the U.S. Army in general was the manpower shortage. Plans to expand the Army to 213 divisions were never met and it was proving difficult to maintain the 89 divisions then in existence - even though almost one-quarter of them had yet to see combat. Furthermore, the prewar planning for replacements was found to be totally inadequate. The causes were manifold: U.S. industrial and agricultural demands could only be partially met by bringing women into the workforce; the Army was fighting a two-front war; fear of the blitzkrieg had resulted in an over-expansion of the antiaircraft and tank destroyer arms; the requirements of the massive expansion of the U.S. Armed Forces in general had reduced the manpower pool; and, perhaps worst of all, segregation meant that a large percentage o the available manpower, African-Americans, were restricted to service support organization and a few separate combat units.

Band of Brothers E Company, 506th Regiment, 101st Airborne from Normandy to Hitler's Eagle's Nest by Stephen E. Ambrose by Stephen E. Ambrose Stephen E. Ambrose
Ghost Soldiers The Epic Account of World War II's Greatest Rescue Mission by Hampton Sides by Hampton Sides Hampton Sides
The Day of Battle The War in Sicily and Italy, 1943-1944 by Rick Atkinson by Rick Atkinson Rick Atkinson
Rangers in World War II by Robert W. Black by Robert W. Black (no photo)
The US Army in World War II (General Military) by Mark R. Henry by Mark R. Henry (no photo)
G.I. Victory The US Army in World War II Color by Jeffrey L. Ethell by Jeffrey L. Ethell (no photo)
United States Army in World War II Pictorial Record The War Against Japan by Us Army Center of Military History by Us Army Center of Military History (no photo)
World War II Infantry Assault Tactics by Gordon L. Rottman by Gordon L. Rottman (no photo)
The Tank Killers A History of America's World War II Tank Destroyer Force by Harry Yeide by Harry Yeide (no photo)
Builders and Fighters U.S. Army Engineers in World War II by United States Army Corps of Engineers by United States Army Corps of Engineers (no photo)

message 35: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments John Marshall

John Marshall was born in a log cabin on the Virginia frontier, the first of fifteen children. He was a participant in the Revolutionary War as a member of the 3d Virginia Regiment. He studied law briefly in 1780, and was admitted to practice the same year. He quickly established a successful career defending individuals against their pre-War British creditors.

Marshall served in Virginia's House of Delegates. He also participated in the state ratifying convention and spoke forcefully on behalf of the new constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation.

Marshall contemplated several offers to serve in the Washington and Adams administrations. He declined service as attorney general for Washington; he declined positions on the Supreme Court and as secretary of war under Adams. At Washington's direction, Marshall ran successfully for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives but his tenure there was brief. Adams offered Marshall the position of secretary of state, which Marshall accepted. When Ellsworth resigned as chief justice in 1800, Adams turned to the first chief justice, John Jay, who declined. Federalists urged Adams to promote associate justice William Paterson to the spot; Adams opted for Marshall.

Marshall's impact on American constitutional law is peerless. He served for more than 34 years (a record that few others have broken), he participated in more than 1000 decisions and authored over 500 opinions. As the single most important figure on constitutional law, Marshall's imprint can still be fathomed in the great issues of contemporary America. Other justices will surpass his single accomplishments, but no one will replace him as the Babe Ruth of the Supreme Court!

Personal Information
Born: Wednesday, September 24, 1755
Died: Monday, July 6, 1835
Childhood Location: Virginia
Childhood Surroundings: Virginia

Position: Chief Justice
Seat: 1
Nominated By: Adams, John
Commissioned on: Saturday, January 31, 1801
Sworn In: Wednesday, February 4, 1801
Left Office: Monday, July 6, 1835
Reason For Leaving: Death
Length of Service: 34 years, 5 months, 2 days
Home: Virginia

John Marshall Definer of a Nation by Jean Edward Smith by Jean Edward SmithJean Edward Smith
The Supreme Court Under Marshall and Taney by R. Kent Newmyer by R. Kent Newmyer (no photo)
The Constitution And Chief Justice Marshall by William F Swindler by William F Swindler (no photo)
John Marshall and the Constitution A Chronicle of the Supreme Court by Edward S. Corwin by Edward S. Corwin (no photo)
The Great Chief Justice John Marshall and the Rule of Law (American Political Thought) by Charles F. Hobson by Charles F. Hobson (no photo)
The Life Of John Marshall by Albert J. Beveridge by Albert J. Beveridge (no photo)
(no image) John Marshall: A Life In Law by Leonard Baker (no photo)
(no image) John Marshall: The Court and the ConstitutionJames Bradley Thayer (no photo)

message 36: by Christopher (new)

Christopher U.S. Army Air Corps

The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) was the statutory forerunner of the United States Air Force. Renamed from the Air Service on 2 July 1926, it was part of the United States Army and the predecessor of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF), established in 1941. Although abolished as an administrative entity in 1942, the Air Corps (AC) remained as one of the combat arms of the Army until 1947.

The Air Corps was renamed by the United States Congress largely as a compromise between advocates of a separate air arm and those of the Army high command who viewed the aviation arm as an auxiliary branch to support the ground forces. Although its members worked to promote the concept of airpower and an autonomous air force between 1926 and 1941, its primary purpose by Army policy remained support of ground forces rather than independent operations.

On 1 March 1935, still struggling with the issue of a separate air arm, the Army activated the General Headquarters Air Force for centralized control of aviation combat units within the continental United States, separate from but coordinate with the Air Corps. The separation of the Air Corps from control of its combat units caused problems of unity of command that became more acute as the Air Corps enlarged in preparation for World War II. This was resolved by the creation of the Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, when both organizations became subordinate to the new higher echelon.

The Air Corps ceased to have an administrative structure after 9 March 1942, but as "the permanent statutory organization of the air arm, and the principal component of the Army Air Forces," the overwhelming majority of personnel assigned to the AAF were members of the Air Corps.

The Air Corps tested and employed a profusion of pursuit, observation, and bomber aircraft during its 15-year history. The advent of the all-metal monoplane, enclosed cockpits, retractable landing gear, enclosed bomb bays, and the emergence of strategic bombardment doctrine led to many designs in the mid and late 1930s that were still in use when the United States entered World War II. Among the key technology items developed were oxygen and cabin pressurization systems, engine superchargers (systems essential for high-altitude combat), advanced radio communication systems, such as VHF radios, and the Norden bombsight.

Notable fighters developed during the late 1930s and early 1940s were the P-39 Airacobra (first flown April 1938), P-40 Tomahawk (October 1938), P-38 Lightning (January 1939), P-51 Mustang (October 1940), and P-47 Thunderbolt (May 1941). Technological development of fighters occurred so rapidly that by December 1941 both the P-39 and P-40 were approaching obsolescence, even though both had been in production less than 18 months. Bombers developed during this period were the A-20 Havoc (first flown October 1938), B-25 Mitchell (January 1939), B-24 Liberator (December 1939), and B-26 Marauder (November 1940). Except for the B-24, P-47, and P-51, all of these had production deliveries that began before June 1941. Three other long-range bombers began development during this period, though only mock-ups were produced before World War II: B-29 Superfortress (study begun in 1938), B-32 Dominator (June 1940), and B-36 Peacemaker (April 1941).

In a special message to Congress on 12 January 1939, President Roosevelt advised that the threat of a new war made the recommendations of the Baker Board inadequate for American defense and requested approval of a "minimum 3,000-plane increase" for the Air Corps. On 3 April 1939, Congress allocated the $300 million requested by Roosevelt for expansion of the Air Corps, half of which was dedicated to purchasing planes to raise the inventory from 2,500 to 5,500 airplanes, and the other half for new personnel, training facilities, and bases. In June the Kilner Board recommended several types of bombers needed to fulfill the Air Corps mission that included aircraft having tactical radii of both 3,000 miles (modified in 1940 to 4,000) and 2,000 miles. Chief of Staff Craig, long an impediment to Air Corps ambitions but nearing retirement, came around to the Air Corps viewpoint after Roosevelt's views became public. Likewise, the War Department General Staff reversed itself and concurred in the requirements, ending the brief moratorium on bomber development and paving the way for work on the B-29.

Over the winter of 1938–1939, Arnold transferred a group of experienced officers to his headquarters as an unofficial air staff to lay out a plan that would increase the Air Corps to 50,000 men by June 1941. The expansion program of the Air Corps was characterized by repeated upward revision of goals for increasing aircraft production, total combat units, the training of new personnel, and construction of new bases. New combat groups were created by detaching cadres from the existing 15 Regular groups to provide the core of the new units, with the older groups providing the basis for an average of three new groups. Graduates of an expanded flight training program filled out the new groups and replaced the experienced personnel transferred from the older groups, resulting in a steady decline in the overall level of experience in the operational units.

The initial 25-Group Program for air defense of the hemisphere, developed in April 1939, called for 50,000 men (12,000 pilots). Its ten new combat groups were activated on 1 February 1940. Following the successful German invasion of France and the Low Countries in May 1940, a 54-Group Program was approved on 12 July, although funding approval could not keep pace and only 25 additional groups were activated on 15 January 1941. An 84-Group Program, with an eventual goal of 400,000 men by 30 June 1942, was approved on 14 March 1941, although not publicly announced until 23 October 1941. In addition to funding problems, these programs were hampered by delays in acquiring the new infrastructure necessary to support them, sites for which had to be identified, negotiated and approved before construction. The General Staff again was unwilling to assign any of this work to the Air Corps, and instead detailed it to the overtaxed Quartermaster Corps. When the QMC failed to put new air bases in place in either an efficient or timely manner, the Corps of Engineers was then assigned the task, although it continued to implement the policies already in place.

When war broke out in September 1939 the plan was only halfway to its goal in manpower, and with only 800 first-line combat aircraft, 700 of which became obsolete by December 1941. Two-thirds of its officers were second lieutenants whose only flying experience was their flight training. The Air Corps had 17 major installations and four depots, and most of its 76 airfields were co-located at civil airports or were small fields on Army posts.The acceleration of the expansion programs resulted in an Air Corps of 156 airfields and nearly 100,000 men by the end of 1940. Twenty civilian flight schools and eight technical training schools were contracted to provide additional training facilities, and on 10 August 1940, Pan American Airways was contracted to provide meteorological and navigation training at Coral Gables, Florida, until military schools could be established.

Procurement of aircraft remained a significant problem for the Air Corps until the eve of war, because of diversion of production to the Allies. On 16 May 1940, with the fall of France imminent, President Roosevelt delivered an address to Congress calling for a supplemental appropriation of nearly a billion dollars and the manufacture of 50,000 aircraft a year for the armed forces (36,500 of them for the Air Corps). 18 months later the AAF still had only 3,304 combat aircraft (only 1,024 overseas), and 7,024 non-combat aircraft, of which 6,594 were trainers. Its command staff increased in October 1940 to 24 with the addition of 15 new general officer billets. By the date the Air Corps became part of the AAF, it had 33 general officers, including four serving in observer roles to the Royal Air Force.

At this stage, public opinion support of airpower reached unprecedented highs, but Arnold made a decision to postpone any attempts to exploit the opportunity to push for an independent Air Force. Assured of a free hand by Marshall, Arnold thought that it would "be a serious mistake to change the existing setup" in the midst of the crucial expansion effort.

The Army and Its Air Corps Army Policy Toward Aviation, 1919 - 1941 by James Tate by James Tate James Tate
Mitsui Madhouse Memoir of A U.S. Army Air Corps POW in World War II by Herbert Zincke by Herbert Zincke (no photo)
Usaaf Handbook 1939-1945 by Martin W. Bowman by Martin W. Bowman (no photo)
Ideas, Concepts, Doctrine Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force 1907-1960 (Vol. 1) by Robert Frank Futrell by Robert Frank Futrell (no photo)
Aviation in the U.S. Army, 1919-1939 by Maurer Maurer by Maurer Maurer (no photo)
Foulois and the U. S. Army Air Corps by John F. Shiner by John F. Shiner (no photo)
A Few Great Captains The Men and Events That Shaped the Development of U.S. Air Power by Dewitt S. Copp by Dewitt S. Copp (no photo)
The Wrong Side of the Fence A United States Army Air Corps POW in World War II by Eugene E. Halmos Jr by Eugene E. Halmos Jr (no photo)
(no image) The Army Air Forces In World War Ii Volume Ii by Wesley Frank Craven (no photo)
(no image) From The Wright Brothers To The Astronauts by Benjamin Delahauf Foulois (no photo)

message 37: by Jerome (new)

Jerome | 3948 comments Charles Lindbergh


Charles Augustus Lindbergh (1902-1974), an American aviator, made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 20-21, 1927. Other pilots had crossed the Atlantic before him. But Lindbergh was the first person to do it alone nonstop.

Lindbergh's feat gained him immediate, international fame. The press named him "Lucky Lindy" and the "Lone Eagle." Americans and Europeans idolized the shy, slim young man and showered him with honors.

Before Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, Lindbergh campaigned against voluntary American involvement in World War II. Many Americans criticized him for his noninvolvement beliefs. After the war, he avoided publicity until the late 1960's, when he spoke out for the conservation of natural resources. Lindbergh served as an adviser in the aviation industry from the days of wood and wire airplanes to supersonic jets.

Charles Augustus Lindbergh was born on Feb. 4, 1902, in Detroit. He grew up on a farm near Little Falls, Minn. He was the son of Charles Augustus Lindbergh, Sr., a lawyer, and his wife, Evangeline Lodge Land. Lindbergh's father served as a U.S. congressman from Minnesota from 1907 to 1917.

In childhood, Lindbergh showed exceptional mechanical ability. At the age of 18 years, he entered the University of Wisconsin to study engineering. However, Lindbergh was more interested in the exciting, young field of aviation than he was in school. After two years, he left school to become a barnstormer, a pilot who performed daredevil stunts at fairs.

In 1924, Lindbergh enlisted in the United States Army so that he could be trained as an Army Air Service Reserve pilot. In 1925, he graduated from the Army's flight-training school at Brooks and Kelly fields, near San Antonio, as the best pilot in his class. After Lindbergh completed his Army training, the Robertson Aircraft Corporation of St. Louis hired him to fly the mail between St. Louis and Chicago. He gained a reputation as a cautious and capable pilot.

In 1919, a New York City hotel owner named Raymond Orteig offered $25,000 to the first aviator to fly nonstop from New York to Paris. Several pilots were killed or injured while competing for the Orteig prize. By 1927, it had still not been won. Lindbergh believed he could win it if he had the right airplane. He persuaded nine St. Louis businessmen to help him finance the cost of a plane. Lindbergh chose Ryan Aeronautical Company of San Diego to manufacture a special plane, which he helped design. He named the plane the Spirit of St. Louis. On May 10-11, 1927, Lindbergh tested the plane by flying from San Diego to New York City, with an overnight stop in St. Louis. The flight took 20 hours 21 minutes, a transcontinental record.

On May 20, 1027, Lindbergh took off in the Spirit of St. Louis from Roosevelt Field, near New York City, at 7:52 A.M. He landed at Le Bourget Field, near Paris, on May 21 at 10:21 P.M. Paris time (5:21 P.M. New York time). Thousands of cheering people had gathered to meet him. He had flown more than 3,600 miles (5,790 kilometers) in 33 1/2 hours.

Lindbergh's heroic flight thrilled people throughout the world. He was honored with awards, celebrations, and parades. President Calvin Coolidge gave Lindbergh the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Flying Cross.

In 1927, Lindbergh published We, a book about his transatlantic flight. The title referred to Lindbergh and his plane. Lindbergh flew throughout the United States to encourage air-mindedness on behalf of the Daniel Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics. Lindbergh learned about the pioneer rocket research of Robert H. Goddard, a Clark University physics professor. Lindbergh persuaded the Guggenheim family to support Goddard's experiments, which later led to the development of missiles, satellites, and space travel. Lindbergh also worked for several airlines as a technical adviser.

Before Charles Lindbergh left for Paris, Harry Guggenheim, a North Shore multimillionaire and aviation enthusiast, visited him at Curtiss Field. "When you get back from your flight, look me up," said Guggenheim, who later admitted he didn't think there was much chance Lindbergh would survive the trip.

Lindbergh remembered and did call upon his return. It was the beginning of a friendship that would have a profound impact on the development of aviation in the United States. The two decided Lindbergh would make a three-month tour of the United States, paid for by a fund Harry and his father, Daniel, had set up earlier to encourage aviation-related research.

Daniel Guggenheim Fund sponsored Lindbergh on a three month nation-wide tour. Flying the "Spirit of St. Louis," he touched down in 49 states, visited 92 cities, gave 147 speeches, and rode 1,290 miles in parades.

Lindbergh was seen by literally millions of people as he flew around the country. Airmail usage exploded overnight as a result, and the public began to view airplanes as a viable means of travel. In addition, Lindbergh spent a month at a Sands Point mansion, Falaise, while writing We, his best-selling 1927 account of his trip.

At the request of the U.S. government, Lindbergh flew to various Latin-American countries in December 1927 as a symbol of American good will. While in Mexico, he met Anne Spencer Morrow, the daughter of Dwight W. Morrow, the American ambassador there. Lindbergh married Anne Morrow in 1929. He taught her to fly, and they went on many flying expeditions together throughout the world, charting new routes for various airlines. Anne Morrow Lindbergh also became famous for her poetry and other writings.

On March 1, 1932, the Lindberghs' 20-month-old son, Charles Augustus, Jr., was kidnapped from the family home in New Jersey. About ten weeks later, his body was found. In 1934, police arrested a carpenter, Bruno Richard Hauptmann, and charged him with the murder. Hauptmann was convicted of the crime. He was executed in 1936.

The press sensationalized the tragedy. Reporters, photographers, and curious onlookers pestered the Lindberghs constantly. In 1935, after the Hauptmann trial, Lindbergh, his wife, and their 3-year-old son, Jon, moved to Europe in search of privacy and safety.

The Lindbergh kidnapping led Congress to pass the "Lindbergh law." This law makes kidnapping a federal offense if the victim is taken across state lines or if the mail service is used for ransom demands.

While in Europe, Lindbergh was invited by the governments of France and Germany to tour the aircraft industries of their countries. Lindbergh was especially impressed with the highly advanced aircraft industry of Nazi Germany. In 1938, Hermann Goering, a high Nazi official, presented Lindbergh with a German medal of honor. Lindbergh's acceptance of the medal caused an outcry in the United States among critics of Nazism.

Lindbergh and his family returned to the United States in 1939. In 1941, he joined the America First Committee, an organization that opposed voluntary American entry into World War II. Lindbergh became a leading spokesman for the committee. He criticized President Franklin D. Roosevelt's foreign policies. He also charged that British, Jewish, and pro-Roosevelt groups were leading America into war. Lindbergh resigned his commission in the Army Air Corps after Roosevelt publicly denounced him. Some Americans accused Lindbergh of being a Nazi sympathizer because he refused to return the medal he had accepted.

After the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, Lindbergh stopped his noninvolvement activity. He tried to reenlist, but his request was refused. He then served as a technical adviser and test pilot for the Ford Motor Company and United Aircraft Corporation (now United Technologies Corporation).

In April 1944, Lindbergh went to the Pacific war area as an adviser to the United States Army and Navy. Although he was a civilian, he flew about 50 combat missions. Lindbergh also developed cruise control techniques that increased the capabilities of American fighter planes.

After the War, Lindbergh withdrew from public attention. He worked as a consultant to the chief of staff of the U.S. Air Force. President Dwight D. Eisenhower restored Lindbergh's commission and appointed him a brigadier general in the Air Force in 1954. Pan American World Airways also hired Lindbergh as a consultant. He advised the airline on its purchase of jet transports and eventually helped design the Boeing 747 jet. In 1953, Lindbergh published The Spirit of St. Louis, an expanded account of his 1927 transatlantic flight. The book won a Pulitzer Prize in 1954.

Lindbergh traveled widely and developed an interest in the cultures of peoples in Africa and the Philippines. In the late 1960's, he ended his years of silence to speak out for the conservation movement. He especially campaigned for the protection of humpback and blue whales, two species of whales in danger of extinction. Lindbergh opposed the development of supersonic transport planes because he feared the effects the planes might have on the earth's atmosphere.

Lindbergh died of cancer on Aug. 26, 1974, in his home on the Hawaiian island of Maui. After his death, he was buried on the beautiful grounds of the Palapala Ho'omau Church. The Autobiography of Values, a collection of Lindbergh's writings, was published in 1978.

The Spirit of St. Louis by Charles A. Lindbergh We The Daring Flyer's Remarkable Life Story and His Account of the Transatlantic Flight That Shook the World by Charles A. Lindbergh by Charles A. LindberghCharles A. Lindbergh
Lindbergh by A. Scott Berg by A. Scott Berg (no photo)
Charles Lindbergh American Hero of Flight by Virginia Meachum by Virginia Meachum (no photo)
The Flight of the Century Charles Lindbergh & the Rise of American Aviation by Thomas Kessner by Thomas Kessner (no photo)
Lindbergh vs. Roosevelt The Rivalry That Divided America by James Duffy by James P. Duffy (no photo)
Those Angry Days Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America's Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941 by Lynne Olson by Lynne OlsonLynne Olson
Atlantic Fever Lindbergh, His Competitors, and the Race to Cross the Atlantic by Joe Jackson by Joe Jackson (no photo)
The Big Jump Lindbergh and the Great Atlantic Air Race by Richard Bak by Richard Bak (no photo)
Lindbergh Triumph and Tragedy by Richard Bak by Richard Bak (no photo)
An American Hero The True Story of Charles a Lindbergh by Barry Denenberg by Barry DenenbergBarry Denenberg

message 38: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Kay Summersby

Born in 1910, in Inish Beg Island, off the coast of County Cork, Ireland, as Kathleen McCarthy-Morrogh, she later came to the United States. She met married and divorced a man by the name of Summersby, and later became engaged to an American colonel who was killed in Tunisia. During World War II she met and became the personal driver and confidential secretary to General Dwight D. Eisenhower, from 1942 to 1945, while he was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe during World War II. Eisenhower later considered divorcing his wife Mamie Eisenhower, to marry Summersby, but on the advice of General George C. Marshall, not to, because it would cost him his career, he did not. Summersby later married a man named Morgan and took an American citizenship and lived out the rest of her life in Southampton, New York.

Past Forgetting My Love Affair with Dwight D. Eisenhower by Kay Summersby Morgan Eisenhower Was My Boss by Kay Summersby by Kay Summersby Morgan
Eisenhower A Soldier's Life by Carlo D'Este by Carlo D'EsteCarlo D'Este
Dogs of War The Stories of FDR's Fala, Patton's Willie, and Ike's Telek. by Kathleen Kinsolving by Kathleen Kinsolving
From the Secret Files of J. Edgar Hoover by Athan Theoharis by Athan Theoharis (no photo)
Eisenhower The White House Years by Jim Newton by Jim Newton (no photo)

message 39: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Eleanor Roosevelt

A shy, awkward child, starved for recognition and love, Eleanor Roosevelt grew into a woman with great sensitivity to the underprivileged of all creeds, races, and nations. Her constant work to improve their lot made her one of the most loved--and for some years one of the most revered--women of her generation.

She was born in New York City on October 11, 1884, daughter of lovely Anna Hall and Elliott Roosevelt, younger brother of Theodore. When her mother died in 1892, the children went to live with Grandmother Hall; her adored father died only two years later. Attending a distinguished school in England gave her, at 15, her first chance to develop self-confidence among other girls.

Tall, slender, graceful of figure but apprehensive at the thought of being a wallflower, she returned for a debut that she dreaded. In her circle of friends was a distant cousin, handsome young Franklin Delano Roosevelt. They became engaged in 1903 and were married in 1905, with her uncle the President giving the bride away. Within eleven years Eleanor bore six children; one son died in infancy. "I suppose I was fitting pretty well into the pattern of a fairly conventional, quiet, young society matron," she wrote later in her autobiography.

In Albany, where Franklin served in the state Senate from 1910 to 1913, Eleanor started her long career as political helpmate. She gained a knowledge of Washington and its ways while he served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy. When he was stricken with poliomyelitis in 1921, she tended him devotedly. She became active in the women's division of the State Democratic Committee to keep his interest in politics alive. From his successful campaign for governor in 1928 to the day of his death, she dedicated her life to his purposes. She became eyes and ears for him, a trusted and tireless reporter.

When Mrs. Roosevelt came to the White House in 1933, she understood social conditions better than any of her predecessors and she transformed the role of First Lady accordingly. She never shirked official entertaining; she greeted thousands with charming friendliness. She also broke precedent to hold press conferences, travel to all parts of the country, give lectures and radio broadcasts, and express her opinions candidly in a daily syndicated newspaper column, "My Day."

This made her a tempting target for political enemies but her integrity, her graciousness, and her sincerity of purpose endeared her personally to many--from heads of state to servicemen she visited abroad during World War II. As she had written wistfully at 14: " matter how plain a woman may be if truth & loyalty are stamped upon her face all will be attracted to her...."

After the President's death in 1945 she returned to a cottage at his Hyde Park estate; she told reporters: "the story is over." Within a year, however, she began her service as American spokesman in the United Nations. She continued a vigorous career until her strength began to wane in 1962. She died in New York City that November, and was buried at Hyde Park beside her husband.

My Day The Best of Eleanor Roosevelt's Acclaimed Newspaper Columns, 1936-1962 by Eleanor Roosevelt The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt by Eleanor Roosevelt On My Own by Eleanor Roosevelt Mother and Daughter The Letters of Eleanor and Anna Roosevelt by Eleanor Roosevelt You Learn by Living Eleven Keys for a More Fulfilling Life by Eleanor Roosevelt Courage in a Dangerous World The Political Writings of Eleanor Roosevelt by Eleanor Roosevelt all by Eleanor RooseveltEleanor Roosevelt
No Ordinary Time Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt by Doris Kearns Goodwin by Doris Kearns GoodwinDoris Kearns Goodwin
Franklin and Eleanor An Extraordinary Marriage by Hazel Rowley by Hazel Rowley (no photo)
A World Made New Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by Mary Ann Glendon by Mary Ann Glendon (no photo)
Eleanor Roosevelt Transformative First Lady by Maurine Beasley by Maurine Beasley (no photo)
Empty without You The Intimate Letters of Eleanor Roosevelt & Lorena Hickok by Rodger Streitmatter by Rodger StreitmatterRodger Streitmatter
Sara and Eleanor The Story of Sara Delano Roosevelt and Her Daughter-in-Law, Eleanor Roosevelt by Jan Pottker by Jan Pottker (no photo)
She Was One of Us Eleanor Roosevelt and the American Worker by Brigid O'Farrell by Brigid O'Farrell (no photo)
The First Ladies of the United States of America by Allida Black by Allida Black (no photo)

message 40: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Felix Frankfurter

Felix Frankfurter was born in Vienna, Austria. He emigrated with his parents in 1894 and grew up amidst teeming tenements on New York's lower east side. He attended City College and established an impressive record at Harvard Law School. He had a brief tour in private legal practice but soon entered into government service, beginning with the U.S. Attorney's office in Manhattan. Frankfurter followed the incumbent U.S. Attorney, Henry Stimson, back into private practice and then back to government, this time as Stimpson held the position of Secretary of War under President Taft.

Frankfurter left government service to accept a position on the faculty of Harvard Law School where he remained, more or less, until his appointment to the Supreme Court in 1938. Frankfurter earned a reputation as an expert in constitutional law and federal jurisdiction. But he was no academic recluse. He argued cases for the National Consumers League, maintained an active interest in Zionist causes, and helped to found The New Republic. Frankfurter was also a highly visible defender of Sacco and Vanzetti, who were anarchists accused of bank robbery and murder in Braintree, Massachusetts.

Frankfurter was a confidant of Justices Louis Brandeis and Oliver Wendell Holmes. Frankfurter would regularly scout out law clerks for these justices from among his minions at Harvard Law School. Frankfurter was also an adviser to Franklin D. Roosevelt and sent many of his students to work in the New Deal.

Frankfurter was a prolific writer on and off the Court. He wrote often even when he was not the Court's main voice. He was an epistolarian in an age where letter-writing was on the wane. He had a brisk and energetic style to all that he did. To this day, his opinions stand out in relation to his colleagues' colorless prose.

Personal Information
Born Wednesday, November 15, 1882
Died Monday, February 22, 1965
Childhood Location Austria
Childhood Surroundings Austria
Religion Jewish
Ethnicity Austrian
Father Leopold Frankfurter
Father's Occupation Merchant
Mother Emma Winter
Family Status Lower-middle

Position Associate Justice
Seat 3
Nominated By Roosevelt, F.
Commissioned on Friday, January 20, 1939
Sworn In Monday, January 30, 1939
Left Office Tuesday, August 28, 1962
Reason For Leaving Retired
Length of Service 23 years, 6 months, 29 days
Home Massachusetts

The Justices Of The United States Supreme Court Their Lives And Major Opinions by Leon Friedman by Leon Friedman (no photo)
New Deal Justice by Jeffrey D. Hockett by Jeffrey D. Hockett
The Brandeis/Frankfurter Connection The Secret Political Activities of Two Supreme Court Justices by Bruce Allen Murphy by Bruce Allen Murphy
The Brethren Inside the Supreme Court by Bob Woodward by Bob WoodwardBob Woodward
From the Diaries of Felix Frankfurter by Felix Frankfurter Felix Frankfurter on the Supreme Court Extrajudicial Essays on the Court and the Constitution by Felix Frankfurter Of Law and Life and Other Things That Matter Papers and Addresses of Felix Frankfurter, 1956-1963 by Felix Frankfurter The Business of the Supreme Court A Study in the Federal Judicial System by Felix Frankfurter by Felix Frankfurter (no photo)
(no image) The Supreme Court in the Mirror of Justices by Felix Frankfurter (no photo)
(no image) The Felix Frankfurter Papers by Felix Frankfurter (no photo)
(no image) The Supreme Court in the Mirror of Justices by Felix Frankfurter (no photo)
(no image) Felix Frankfurter Reminisces by Felix Frankfurter (no photo)
(no image) The Enigma of Felix Frankfurter by H.N. Hirsch (no photo)

message 41: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Averell Harriman

William Averell Harriman, the son of the railway magnate, E. H. Harriman, was born in New York City on 15th November, 1891. He joined his father's Union Pacific Company in 1915 and became chairman of the board in 1932.

Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed Harriman as U.S. Ambassador of the Soviet Union in 1943. He held the post until 1946 when Harry S. Truman appointed him as Secretary of Commerce. Harriman worked on the Marshall Plan and served as national security adviser during the Korean War.

A member of the Democratic Party Harriman was elected governor of New York in 1954. After two unsuccessful attempts to become the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952 and 1956 Harriman served in several posts under President John F. Kennedy. This included negotiating the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty in 1963.

Despite being named as a Soviet spy by Anatoli Golitsin, Harriman was appointed by President Lyndon B. Johnson as ambassador-at-large for Southeast Asian affairs in 1965. He also served as chief US negotiator when preliminary peace talks opened in France between the United States and North Vietnam in 1968.

Harriman lost this position as US negotiator under President Richard Nixon but returned to office in 1978 when he was appointed the senior member of the US Delegation to the United Nations General Assembly's Special Session on Disarmament. William Averell Harriman died in 1986.

Stalin's Curse Battling for Communism in War and Cold War by Robert Gellately by Robert Gellately
Citizens of London The Americans Who Stood with Britain in Its Darkest, Finest Hour by Lynne Olson by Lynne OlsonLynne Olson
(no image) Treason in America: From Aaron Burr to Averell Harriman by Anton Chaitkin (no photo)
(no image) Spanning the Century: The Life of W. Averell Harriman, 1891-1986 by Rudy Abramson (no photo)
(no image) Special Envoy To Churchill And Stalin, 1941 1946 by William Averell Harriman (no photo)
(no image) America and Russia in a Changing World: A Half Century of Personal Observation by W. Averell Harriman (no photo)

message 42: by Alisa (last edited May 31, 2013 06:59AM) (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Works Progress Administration

The Works Progress Administration (WPA) was instituted by presidential executive order under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of April 1935, to generate public jobs for the unemployed. The WPA was restructured in 1939 when it was reassigned to the Federal Works Agency.

By 1936 over 3.4 million people were employed on various WPA programs. Administered by Harry Hopkins and furnished with an original congressional allocation of $4.8 billion, the WPA made work accessible to the unemployed on an unparalleled scale by disbursing funds for an extensive array of programs. Hopkins argued that although the work relief program was more costly than direct relief payments, it was worth it. He averred, "Give a man a dole, and you save his body and destroy his spirit. Give him a job and you save both body and spirit."

While responsibility for such unemployable people as children, the elderly, and the handicapped was remanded to the states, the WPA provided literally millions of jobs to employable people, enrolling on average about two million a year during its eight-year stint. Far fewer women were enrolled than men. Just 13.5 percent of WPA employees were women in 1938, its top enrollment year.

The WPA was charged with selecting projects that would make a real and lasting contribution — but would not vie with private firms. As it turned out, the "pump-priming" effect of federal projects actually stimulated private business during the Depression years. The WPA focused on tangible improvements: During its tenure, workers constructed 651,087 miles of roads, streets and highways; and built, repaired or refurbished 124,031 bridges, 125,110 public buildings, 8,192 parks, and 853 landing fields. In addition, workers cleaned slums, revived forests, and extended electrical power to rural locations.

Work was provided for nearly a million students through the WPA National Youth Administration (NYA). The Federal One projects employed 40,000 artists and other cultural workers to produce music and theater, sculptures, murals and paintings, state and regional travel guides, and surveys of national archives. The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) was a program designed to address the problem of jobless young men aged between 18 and 25 years old. CCC camps were set up all around the country.

The WPA`s positive results for the public good and its popularity helped Franklin D. Roosevelt to garner a thumping electoral victory in 1936, even though the agency employed no more than about 25 percent of the nation`s jobless.

Meanwhile, New Deal critics in Congress accused the program of waste, political maneuvering, and even subversive activity; they took their chance to prune the program when unemployment figures dipped a little in 1937. When unemployment rose again the following year, funding was brought back to previous levels. However, 1939 saw more cutbacks. The Emergency Relief Appropriations Act of June 30 eliminated the Federal Theater Project, cut back WPA pay and limited enrollment to 18 months.

Reacting to charges of politicking by WPA employees during the 1938 congressional races, the Hatch Act of August 1939 prevented federal workers from participating in a broad array of political activities.

With wartime prosperity rising in the 1940s, the WPA became more difficult to justify, and on June 30, 1943 the agency was terminated by presidential proclamation. All told, the WPA had employed more than 8,500,000 individuals on 1,410,000 projects with an average salary of $41.57 a month, and had spent about $11 billion.

American-Made The Enduring Legacy of the WPA When FDR Put the Nation to Work by Nick Taylor by Nick TaylorNick Taylor
The Works Progress Administration in Detroit by Elizabeth Clemens by Elizabeth Clemens (no photo)
California in the 1930s The WPA Guide to the Golden State by Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration by Federal Writers Project of the Works Progress Administration (no photo)
Soul of a People The WPA Writers' Project Uncovers Depression America by David A. Taylor by David A. Taylor (no photo)
Building New Deal Liberalism The Political Economy of Public Works, 1933 1956 by Jason Scott Smith byJason Scott Smith (no photo)
Long-Range Public Investment The Forgotten Legacy of the New Deal (Social Problems and Social Issues (Univ of South Carolina)) by Robert D., Jr. Leighninger by Robert D., Jr. Leighninger (no photo)
Poverty In The United States An Encyclopedia Of History, Politics, And Policy by Gwendolyn Mink by Gwendolyn Mink (no photo)

message 43: by Mark (new)

Mark Mortensen Oil Embargo on Japan

Prior to the outbreak of World War II, China was heavily supported by Germany (until 1938) and the Soviet Union. The latter readily provided aircraft, military supplies, and advisors seeing China as a buffer against Japan. The United States, Britain, and France limited their support to war contracts prior to the beginning of the larger conflict. Public opinion, while initially on the side of the Japanese, began to shift following reports of atrocities like the Rape of Nanking. It was further swayed by incidents such as the Japanese sinking of the gunboat USS Panay on December 12, 1937, and increasing fears about Japan's policy of expansionism.

US support increased in mid-1941, with the clandestine formation of the 1st American Volunteer Group, better known as the "Flying Tigers." Equipped with US aircraft and American pilots the 1st AVG, under Colonel Claire Chennault, effectively defended the skies over China and Southeast Asia from late-1941 to mid-1942, downing 300 Japanese aircraft with a loss of only 12 of their own. In addition to military support, the US, Britain, and the Netherlands East Indies initiated oil and steel embargos against Japan in August 1941.

The American oil embargo caused a crisis in Japan. Reliant on the US for 80% of its oil, the Japanese were forced to decide between withdrawaling from China, negotiating an end to the conflict, or going to war to obtain the needed resources elsewhere. In an attempt to resolve the situation, Konoe [Japanese Prince Fumimaro Konoe] asked US President Franklin Roosevelt for a summit meeting to discuss the issues. Roosevelt replied that Japan needed to leave China before such a meeting could be held. While Konoe was seeking a diplomatic solution, the military was looking south to the Netherlands East Indies and their rich sources of oil and rubber. Believing that an attack in this region would cause the US to declare war, they began planning for such an eventuality.

On October 16, 1941, after unsuccessfully arguing for more time to negotiate, Konoe resigned as prime minister and was replaced by the pro-military General Hideki Tojo. While Konoe had been working for peace, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had developed its war plans. These called for a preemptive strike against the US Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, HI, as well as simultaneous strikes against the Philippines, Netherlands East Indies, and the British colonies in the region. The goal of this plan was to eliminate the American threat, allowing Japanese forces to secure the Dutch and British colonies. The IJN's chief of staff, Admiral Osami Nagano, presented the attack plan to Emperor Hirohito on November 3. Two days later the emperor approved it, ordering the attack to occur in early December if no diplomatic breakthroughs were achieved.

The Prize The Epic Quest for Oil, Money, and Power by Daniel Yergin by Daniel Yergin (no photo)
Day Of Deceit The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor by Robert B. Stinnett by Robert Stinnett (no photo)
The Routledge Handbook of Energy Security by Benjamin K. Sovacool by Benjamin K. Sovacool (no photo)
Pearl Harbor FDR Leads the Nation Into War by Steven M. Gillon by Steven M. Gillon (no photo)
(no image)World War Ii 1939 1945 by Tim McNeeseTim McNeese
(no image)No Choice But War: The United States Embargo Against Japan and the Eruption of War in the Pacific by Roland H. Worth, Jr. (no photo)

message 44: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 31, 2013 07:15PM) (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod
Jim Dingeman has added some very helpful information:

His post which was moved states as follows:

Marshall was a protege of John Pershing, who commanded the AEF in World War One. His role in planning the Meuse Argonne offensive in 1918, is considered critical in advancing his career. This was the largest offensive the US mounted in WW I, employing 22-23 US divisions and large numbers of artillery, tanks and aircraft. Marshall played a key role in the planning..hence, he was brought under the wings of Pershing.

also check out these resources at West Point:

These in particular for Meuse Argonne:

The above is a great map Jim - thank you.

message 45: by Bentley, Group Founder, Leader, Chief (last edited May 31, 2013 08:05PM) (new)

Bentley | 37386 comments Mod
Jim Dingeman has added some very useful information:

The segment of his original post which was moved stated as follows:

Jim Dingeman stated:

Here is a decent source although heavily reliant on German sources of the Campaign in Poland in 1939

This source is interesting because it is contemporaneous with the aftermath of the 1939-1940 campaigns and shows how Marshall wanted the lessons of Poland to be digested by the senior US military leadership

Some more useful information from Jim:

Jim Dingeman stated:

The use of airpower in the 1939-1940 campaigns also had a dramatic impact on the thinking at the highest levels in the US political-military is a more modern analysis of what the Luftwaffe was ACTUALLY doing in the 1939-1940 campaigns...this is what the U.S leadership was studying and made decisions about where to concentrate the bulk of resources easier when the time came for those decisions

Some more useful information from Jim:

Jim Dingeman stated:

This is the British official history of the 1939-1940 campaign in France done in 1954..dated but useful:

message 46: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Neville Chamberlain

Chamberlain was British prime minister between 1937 and 1940, and is closely associated with the policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany.

Arthur Neville Chamberlain was born on 18 March 1869 in Birmingham into a political family. His father, Joseph, was an influential politician of the late 19th century and Neville's older half-brother Austen held many Conservative cabinet positions in the early 20th century and won the Nobel Peace Prize.

Chamberlain was educated in Birmingham. After a successful career in business, in 1915 he was appointed lord mayor of Birmingham. In 1916, Lloyd George appointed him director-general of the department of national service, but disagreements between them led Chamberlain to resign. In 1918, Chamberlain was elected Conservative member of parliament for Ladywood in Birmingham and was rapidly promoted. He served as both chancellor of the exchequer (1923 - 1924) and minister of health (1923, 1924 -1929, 1931). In 1937, he succeeded Stanley Baldwin as prime minister.

Like many in Britain who had lived through World War One, Chamberlain was determined to avert another war. His policy of appeasement towards Adolf Hitler culminated in the Munich Agreement in which Britain and France accepted that the Czech region of the Sudetenland should be ceded to Germany. Chamberlain left Munich believing that by appeasing Hitler he had assured 'peace for our time'. However, in March 1939 Hitler annexed the rest of the Czech lands of Bohemia and Moravia, with Slovakia becoming a puppet state of Germany. Five months later in September 1939 Hitler's forces invaded Poland. Chamberlain responded with a British declaration of war on Germany.

In May 1940, after the disastrous Norwegian campaign, Chamberlain resigned and Winston Churchill became prime minister. Chamberlain served in Churchill's cabinet as lord president of the council. He died a few weeks after he left office, on 9 November 1940.

Neville Chamberlain by David Dutton by David Dutton (no photo)
Neville Chamberlain and Appeasement by Robert J. Caputi by Robert J. Caputi (no photo)
Neville Chamberlain A Biography by Robert C. Self by Robert C. Self (no photo)
The Neville Chamberlain Diary Letters by Neville Chamberlain In Search of Peace by Neville Chamberlain by Neville Chamberlain (no photo)
Neville Chamberlain and British Rearmament Pride, Prejudice, and Politics by John Ruggiero by John Ruggiero (no photo)
Rise of Neville Chamberlain by Jesse Russell by Jesse Russell (no photo)
Burying Caesar by Graham Stewart by Graham Stewart (no photo)
Alternatives to Appeasement Neville Chamberlain and Hitler's Germany by Andrew David Stedman by Andrew David Stedman (no photo)
(no image) The Chamberlain Cabinet: How the Meetings in 10 Downing Street, 1937-1939, Led to the Second World War--Told for the First Time from the Cabine by Ian Goodhope Colvin (no photo)

message 47: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Forest of Compiègne

[image error]

At 5:10 am, 11 November 1918, the representatives of the German high command signed the armistice dictated to them by Marshal Foch, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces. Six hours later at the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month of 1918 World War I ended. The Third Republic, the most enduring French regime since the Revolution, had with the help of its democratic allies, the British Empire and the United States of America, survived it strongest challenge. The old order, established after Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo, had vanished. The Germans who arrived in the Forest of Compiegne as representatives of the German Empire signed the armistice three days later as representatives of the German Republic. The empires of the Hapsburgs, Hohenzollerns, Romanovs and Ottomans were no more. Establishing a new order proved more difficult, perhaps, than anyone present in Wagon Lits Company coach No. 2419D on that misty morning might have imagined.

Where better to begin an exploration of the history, politics and emotions of the brief period between the World Wars than in the Forest of Compiegne? Here, amidst the memorials symbolic of the unresolved bitterness of both victors and vanquished, the short interval between peace and war would begin and end.

No time was wasted in turning the historic meeting place into a national shrine and memorial to the victory of French arms. On the initiative of M. Fournier, Mayor of Compiegne, the wooded bog was transformed into "The Glade of the Armistice". A boulevard, 250 feet wide, was opened up between the Compiegne-Rethondes road and the railroad. A circular clearing, 100 yards in diameter, was carved from the woods and at its center was placed a stone slab bearing the words of Binet-Valmer:


"Here, 11 November 1918, succumbed the criminal pride of the German Empire. Vanquished by the free peoples it sought to enslave." The Slab

Granite slabs marked the exact positions of the cars used by Marshal Foch and the German plenipotentiaries. Le Matin, a Paris newspaper, raised funds from its subscribers for a memorial to the liberators of Alsace and Lorraine which was placed at the far end of the boulevard. The bronze sculpture of a sword striking down the Imperial Eagle of Germany is framed by Alsatian sandstone and inscribed "To the heroic soldiers of France - Defender of Fatherland and of Right - Glorious liberators of Alsace and Lorraine". The Glade was formally dedicated on Armistice Day 1922 by Presidents Alexandre Millerand and Raymond Poincare.

Marshal Foch's coach, Wagon Lits Company car No. 2419D, was returned to its former service as a dining car after the war. It was exhibited in the courtyard of Les Invalides in Paris from 1921 to 1927. The "Wagon" returned to the Glade on Armistice Day 1927 when it was installed in a shelter built by the city of Compiegne with funds contributed by American, Henry Fleming. Marshal Foch and General Weygand returned to the clearing for the ceremony.

The last of the Glade's memorials, a statue of Marshal Foch by Michelet, was dedicated in the fall of 1937 by General Georges, the Minister of War, in the presence of the Marshal's widow, Madame Foch, and General Weygand. The clouds of war gathered once more about the Glade and the Marshal's work would soon be in jeopardy.

World War II on the western front began in earnest on the morning of May 10, 1940. Once more Germany would attack its neighbor through the neutral low countries and this time there would be no Miracle on the Marne. Within six weeks the British Expeditionary Force was pushed back across the Channel. France, the last surviving democracy on the continent, was forced to sue for peace.

On June 17th the panic stricken government, formed by Marshal Petain, made a formal request for an armistice. Three days later a delegation led by General Huntziger left Bordeaux at 2pm intending to rendevous with the Germans at the Loire bridge in Tours at 5pm. After battling against the tide of retreating troops and refugees the envoys finally reached the river at 10pm. There they were directed to continue on to Chartres. Several of their number suspected that the Germans would hold the talks in the Palace of Versailles where the King of Prussia had been enthroned as Kaiser of a united German Empire in 1871 and where the humiliating Peace Treaty had been forced on Germany in 1919. The party continued on to Paris and spent the night before being directed to their final destination.

In Bordeaux the commander of the French forces, General Weygand, waited anxiously for news of the delegation. At 8:30 pm, June 21, 1940 his phone finally rang: Huntziger, "I'm in the Wagon"; Weygand, "mon pauvre ami". The shock and recognition were instantaneous. German engineers had demolished the front wall of the museum and moved the car on to the track and placed it exactly were it had stood 22 years before when Weygand had read Foch's terms to the representatives of a defeated Germany.

The arrival of the German Chancellor as described by William L. Shirer in The Collapse of the Third Republic: "Adolf Hitler, at the moment of his greatest triumph, was in a truculent and arrogant mood as he arrived at the little clearing in the woods at Rethondes at 3:15 pm on June 21. To dictate an armistice in this historic place was sweet revenge for the man who had been a lowly corporal in the army that had been forced to give up in 1918, and he did not hide his feelings. Standing a few feet away, I saw his face light up, successively, with hate, scorn, revenge, triumph as he strode to the little marble block that marked the spot where Foch's wagonlit had stood in 1918." General Keitel read a declaration written by Hitler explaining why this place had been chosen for the talks, "to efface once and for all by an act of reparative justice a memory which was resented by the German people as the greatest shame of all time."

Three days after the signing of the second armistice the stone slab whose inscription had so offended Hitler was broken up and packed off to Germany in wooden crates. The Alsace Lorraine memorial suffered the same fate. The Wagon was hauled to Berlin where the new victors placed it on exhibit until 1943. The Glade's avenues and clearance were plowed up, its trees cut down and the remains of the shed demolished. Only the statue of Foch remained unviolated. An act of soldierly courtesy on the part of the Germans? No, more likely another bit of petty revenge on the part of the Fueher; the victor of 1918 left in solitude to contemplate the annihilation of his work.

France had lost a battle but France had not lost a war.
Compiegne was liberated by American and French troops on September 1, 1944. A short time there after German POWs were put to work restoring the Armistice Glade. On the afternoon of October 21,1944 the Citizens of Compiegne gathered in the Glade for a meeting of atonement. A wooden substitute covered in a memorial clothe was placed on the spot were the sacred stone formerly lay. The mayor of Compiegne had directed the town architect to secretly make these objects during the occupation. On Armistice Day 1944. at 5:15 pm the Prime Minister M. Jeanneney took a torch and lit a stake at the foot of the wooden slab while scouts piled bundles of kindling around it. The Glade was purified.

The massive aerial bombardment of Berlin became so intense by 1943 that the Nazi regime decided that if its most prize spoil of war was to be protected it would have to be removed from the capital. Marshal Foch's wagon-lit was moved to the forest of Thuringia. In April 1945 with the allies driving deep into the German homeland, SS troops committed one last act of vengeance against the victors of 1918 by setting fire to the historic coach.

Germany surrendered once more on May 8, 1945. This time in a schoolhouse in Reims. A short time there after the crates containing the pieces of the sacred stone slab and Alsace Lorraine monuments were located in Berlin. They were restored and returned to their original locations in the Armistice Clearing. Visitors once again flocked to the historic Glade at Compiegne but still yearned to see the old wagon. Another wagon, car No.2439 D constructed in 1913 like the original was placed on exhibit in a new shed. Fortunately, the original furnishings and documents from the Marshal's wagon were removed for safe keeping at the outbreak of World War II in 1939. The dedication of the Museum of the Armistice on November 11, 1950 marked the full restoration of the Glade to its pre-1940 condition.

Eleventh Month, Eleventh Day, Eleventh Hour Armistice Day, 1918  by Joseph E. Persico by Joseph E. PersicoJoseph E. Persico
Berlin Diary The Journal of a Foreign Correspondent 1934-41 by William L. Shirer by William L. ShirerWilliam L. Shirer
Armistice 1918 (The World Wars) by R.G. Grant by R.G. Grant (no photo)
Armistice 1918 by Bullitt Lowry by Bullitt Lowry (no photo)
Home Before the Leaves Fall by Ian Senior by Ian Senior (no photo)
The Story of the Second World War by Henry Steele Commager by Henry Steele Commager (no photo)
(no image) The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 5 Bulgaria to Castanos by Americana Corporation (no photo)

message 48: by Alisa (last edited Jun 11, 2013 07:03PM) (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Harold L. Ickes

Harold Ickes was born in Frankstown, Pennsylvania on 15th March, 1874. He attended the University of Chicago and after graduating in 1897 he set himself up as a lawyer. Ickes held progressive political views and often worked for causes he believed in without pay.

As a young man he was deeply influenced by the politics of John Altgeld. He later wrote: "How the Chicago Tribune and others had smeared this humane and courageous man because he had fought for the underdog, and especially because he had pardoned those who still lived of the innocent victims who had been railroaded to the penitentiary after the Haymarket riot! So far as I could see, Altgeld stood about where I wanted to stand on social questions."

Ickes worked for Theodore Roosevelt in the 1912 presidential election. After the demise of the Progressive Party, Ickes switched to Hiram Johnson and managed his unsuccessful campaign to became a presidential candidate in 1924.

Ickes became a follower of Franklin D. Roosevelt after being impressed by his progressive policies as governor of New York. In 1932 Ickes played an important role in persuading progressive Republicans to support Roosevelt in the presidential election. He was a supporter of the New Deal. As he later argued: "Many billions of dollars could properly be spent in the United States on permanent improvements. Such spending would not only help us out of the depression, it would do much for the health, well-being and prosperity of the people. I refuse to believe that providing an adequate water supply for a municipality or putting in a sewage system is a wasteful expenditure of money. Any money spent in such fashion as to make our people healthier and happier human beings is not only a good social investment, it is sound from a strictly financial point of view. I can think of no better investment, for instance, than money paid out to provide education and to safeguard the health of the people."

In 1933 Roosevelt appointed Ickes as his Secretary of the Interior. This involved running the Public Works Administration (PWA) and over the next six years spent more than $5,000,000,000 on various large-scale projects. Ickes, a strong supporter of civil rights, he worked closely with Walter Francis White of the NAACP to establish quotas for African American workers in PWA projects.

His work was praised by the New York Times: "Mr. Ickes knows all the rackets that infest the construction industry. He is a terror to collective bidders and skimping contractors. He warns that the PWA fund is a sacred trust fund and that only traitors would graft on a project undertaken to save people from hunger. He insists on fidelity to specifications; cancels violated contracts mercilessly, sends inspectors to see that men in their eagerness to work are not robbed of pay by the kickback swindle."

Ickes felt that others in the administration, such as Harry L. Hopkins, had more power and influence over Roosevelt's decision. Ickes did not get on with Harry S. Truman and resigned from his government in 1946 in protest over the appointment of Edwin W. Pauley, Under Secretary of the Navy.

In his final years Ickes wrote a syndicated newspaper column and contributed regularly to the New Republic. Ickes wrote several books including New Democracy (1934), Back to Work: The Story of the PWA (1935), Yellowstone National Park (1937), The Third Term Bugaboo: A Cheerful Anthology (1940), Fighting Oil: The History and Politics of Oil (1943) and The Autobiography of a Curmudgeon (1943).

Harold Ickes died in Washington on 3rd February, 1952. The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes, was published posthumously in 1953.

Those Angry Days Roosevelt, Lindbergh, and America's Fight Over World War II, 1939-1941 by Lynne Olson by Lynne OlsonLynne Olson
Roosevelt's Warrior Harold L. Ickes and the New Deal by Jeanne Nienaber Clarke by Jeanne Nienaber Clarke (no photo)
Harold Ickes of the New Deal His Private Life and Public Career by G White by G White (no photo)
The Autobiography of a Curmudgeon by Harold L Ickes by Harold L Ickes (no photo)
(no image) Harold L. Ickes: The Aggressive Progressive, 1874 1933 by Linda J. Lear (no photo)
(no image) Righteous Pilgrim: The Life and Times of Harold L. Ickes, 1874-1952 by T.H. Watkins (no photo)
(no image)The Secret Diary of Harold L. Ickes, Volume III: The Lowering Clouds, 1939-1941 by Harold L Ickes (no photo)
(no image) Back to work; the story of PWA by Harold L Ickes (no photo)
(no image) Fightin' oil by Harold L Ickes (no photo)

message 49: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Irving Berlin

Irving Berlin once said that, "a patriotic song is an emotion and you must not embarrass an audience with it, or they will hate your guts." This philosophy made him one of America's most outstanding writers of patriotic songs from World War I through World War II.

Berlin was born Israel Baline in Eastern Russia on May 11, 1888. He was one of eight children born to Leah and Moses Baline. His father was a shochet (one who kills kosher animals as prescribed by Jewish religious laws) who was also the cantor in the synagogue. His family moved to New York in 1893 to escape the pogroms in Russia. At the age of eight, he took to the streets of the Lower East Side of New York City to help support his mother and family after his father had died. In the early 1900s he worked as a singing waiter in many restaurants and started writing songs. His first published hit was "Marie From Sunny Italy." His successes continued through two years.

Berlin was married for only a year to Dorothy Goetz, who died from typhoid contracted while on their honeymoon in Cuba in 1913. He married Ellin Mackay in 1926. She was the daughter of Clarence Mckay, president of Postal Telegraph Company, a leading Catholic layman who opposed the wedding. The Berlins had three daughters.

In World War I, he wrote the musical Yip, Yip, Yaphank, which was produced by the men of Camp Upton. In this musical, the big hit song was "Oh, How I Hate to Get Up in the Morning," which reflected Berlin's aversion to rising early. This musical raised more than $150,000 to build a service center at Camp Upton.

On Armistice Day, 1938, he introduced "God Bless America," which was sung by Kate Smith. This song threatened to replace the national anthem because of its patriotism and popularity.

In World War II, he wrote the musical This is the Army, which raised $10 million for the Army Emergency Relief. His hits in this musical were "This is the Army, Mr Jones" and I Left My Heart at the Stage Door Canteen." He also wrote other patriotic songs such as "Any Bonds Today?," "Arms for the Love of America," and "Angels of Mercy" for the American Red Cross.

Berlin was prolific: He wrote more than 900 songs, 19 musicals and the scores of 18 movies. Some of his songs that have become classics include "There's No Business Like Show Business," "Easter Parade," and "White Christmas." He is the top money maker among songwriters in America. In 1924, songwriter Jerome Kern observed "Irving Berlin has no place in American music. He is American music."

Berlin supported Jewish charities and organizations and donated many dollars to worthwhile causes. He was honored in 1944 by the National Conference of Christians and Jews for "advancing the aims of the conference to eliminate religious and racial conflict." Five years later, he was honored by the New York YMHA as one of "12 outstanding Americans of the Jewish faith." On February 18, 1955, President Eisenhower presented him with a gold medal in recognition of his services in composing many patriotic songs for the country. Earlier, Berlin assigned the copyright for "God Bless America" to the God Bless America Fund, which has raised millions of dollars for the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts. Berlin's World War I doughboy uniform and many of his original patriotic scores are on display in the Jewish War Veterans Museum in Washington, D.C.

Irving Berlin died on September 22, 1989, at the age of 101.

Following a gala 100th birthday celebration concert at Carnegie Hall, Morton Gould, president of ASCAP, said that "Irving Berlin's music will last not for just an hour, not for just a day, not for just a year, but always." Not bad for a poor immigrant who had only two years of formal schooling and who never learned to read or write music!

All by Myself by Irving Berlin Irving Berlin Anthology by Irving Berlin Irving Berlin - Movie Songs by Irving Berlin Irving Berlin - Broadway Songs by Irving Berlin God Bless America & Other Songs for a Better Nation by Irving Berlin Irving Berlin - Ballads by Irving Berlin by Irving BerlinIrving Berlin
As Thousands Cheer The Life of Irving Berlin by Laurence Bergreen by Laurence BergreenLaurence Bergreen
Irving Berlin A Daughter's Memoir by Mary Ellin Barrett by Mary Ellin Barrett (no photo)
Word Crazy Broadway Lyricists from Cohan to Sondheim by Thomas S. Hischiak by Thomas S. Hischiak (no photo)
White Christmas The Story of an American Song by Jody Rosen by Jody Rosen (no photo)
The Complete Lyrics of Irving Berlin by Robert Kimball by Robert Kimball (no photo)
Irving Berlin American Troubadour (Irving Berlin) by Edward Jablonski by Edward Jablonski (no photo)

message 50: by Alisa (new)

Alisa (MsTaz) | 5729 comments Bismarck

Bismarck, a 41,673-ton battleship, was built at Hamburg, Germany. First of a class of two heavy ships, with Tirpitz being the second, she was commissioned in August 1940 and spent the rest of that year running trials and continuing her outfitting. The first months of 1941 were largely devoted to training operations in the Baltic sea. Bismarck left the Baltic on 19 May 1941, en route to the Atlantic, accompanied by the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen. On the morning of 24 May, while west of Iceland, the German vessels encountered the British battlecruiser Hood and battleship Prince of Wales. In the ensuing Battle of the Denmark Strait, Hood blew up and sank. The seriously damaged Prince of Wales was forced to break off contact. Bismarck also received shell hits that degraded her seakeeping and contaminated some of her fuel.

Later on 24 May, Prinz Eugen was detached, while Bismarck began a voyage toward France, where she could be repaired. She was intermittantly attacked by carrier planes and surface ships, ultimately sustaining a torpedo hit in the stern that rendered her unable to steer effectively. British battleships and heavy cruisers intercepted the crippled ship on the morning of 27 May. After less than two hours of battle, shells and torpedoes had reduced Bismarck to a wreck. She capsized and sank, with the loss of all but 110 of her crew of some 2300 men.

Nazi dictator Adolf Hitler's reaction to Bismarck's loss produced a very cautious approach to future German surface ship operations against Britain's vital Atlantic sea lanes. In June 1989, just over forty-eight years after she sank, the German battleship's battered hulk was located and photographed where she lies upright on a mountainside, nearly 16,000 feet below the ocean surface.

This page features or provides links to all our views of the German battleship Bismarck.

Pursuit The Chase and Sinking of the Bismarck by Ludovic Kennedy by Ludovic KennedyLudovic Kennedy
Exploring the Bismarck The Real-Life Quest to Find Hitler's Greatest Battleship by Robert D. Ballard The Discovery of the Bismarck by Robert D. Ballard by Robert D. BallardRobert D. Ballard
The Battleship Bismarck by Ulrich Elfrath by Ulrich Elfrath (no photo)
The Battleship Bismarck by Jack Brower by Jack Brower (no photo)
Sink the Bismarck Germany's Super-Battleship of World War II by Tom McGowen by Tom McGowen (no photo)
"Bismarck" A Minute-by-minute Account of the Final Hours of Germany's Greatest Battleship by Niklas Zetterling by Niklas Zetterling (no photo)
On Course to Oblivion An Analogy of the Kriegsmarine and the Battleship Bismarck by Robert C. Gramberg by Robert C. Gramberg (no photo)
(no image) H. M. S. Hood Vs. Bismarck: The Battleship Battle by Theodore Taylor (no photo)

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